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199 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is emilsification?
the breaking up of large fat droplets into small fat droplets
In which population would it be least likel that an accident would significantly alter the frequency of the brown allele
Population 2
Most members have cartilaginous endoskeleton
includes snakes turtles and lizards
includes salamanders frogs and toads
three major groups: egg laying pouched and placental
internal fertailization, amniotic egg, skin that resists drying evolved in late carboniferous
what kind of connective tissue has a liquid matrix
tbe source of trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen is the
most copies of harmful recessive alleles in a population are carried by individuals that are
heterozygous for the allele
One species lives onlin in tree holes another species lives only in streams
What is the first level of control of eukaryotic gene transcription?
DNA packing and unpacking
A(n) _______ is an expample of a mollusk that does not have a shell
The group that may have given rise to amphibians are the __________.
lobe-finned fishes
What are the sources of genetic variation in sexual life cycles of animals?
A, B, and C
What are the sources of genetic variation in sexual life cycles of animals?
abc = Crossing over during meiosis + independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis + random fertilization
Bacteria that are unable to survive in the presence of oxygen are called?
obligate anaerobes
If photosynthesizing green algea are providd with CO2 synthesized with heavy oxygen (18o) later analyisis will show that all but one of the following compounds produced by the algae contain the 18o lable. That one exception is:
0 2
The neural tube develops into the ________
brain and spinal cord
what type of reproductive isolating mechanism is described by a situation in which female fireflies only mate with males who emit light in a particular pattern?
behavioral isolation
What are the advantages of asexual reproduction?
It promotes genetic stability
During redox reactions,
electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance
Digestion is the _______
mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
With each replication of the DNA molecule, the DNA molecule becomes shorter.
This problem is resolved by telomerase, which extends the 3' end of the DNA
WHich of the following minerals is incorrectly associated with its use in animals?

b. magnesium
c. sodium
d. phosphorus
e. calcium
Iron - regulation of metabolic rate
Agents that help emulsify fats are produced by (number)
What is one characteristic that seperates chordates from all other animals?
hollow dorsal nerve cord
What name is given to the collection of traits exhibited by an organsim?
In photosynthesis, redox reaction ultimately transfer electrons from ________ to _________.
H2O ... CO2
A man who carries an X-linked allele will pass it on to
all of his daughters
Which of the following is the source of electrons for the light reactions?
Which of the following is NOT a shared characteristic of all chardates?
four-chambered heart
The type of reproductive barrier that occurs when two species mate but fail to produce fertile hybrids is refered to as ________.
a post-zygotic barrier
In humans, male-pattern baldness is controlled by a gene that occurs in two allelic forms. Allele Hn determines nonbaldness and allele Hb determines pattern baldness.......Approximately what percentage of their male children would be expected eventually to be bald?
In order to determine the phenotype of an individual who express a dominant trait, you would cross that individual with and individual who ___________.
is homozygous recessive for that trait.
In mitochandria, chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis translocates protons from ____________.
the stroma into the thylakoid compartment
In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?
NADH and pyruvate
Genetic drift is the result of __________.
A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely resembles an ancient form. It has the following characteristics :external "armor" of bony; no paired fins; and a suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. In addition to these characteristics, it will probably have which of the following characteristics?
no jaws
The parts of a flower include all of the following except.

a. petals
b. sepals
c. carpels
d. stamens
e. cones
Which of the following correctly illustrates the sequence of the origin of modern groups of plants?
bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms
The Calvin cycle makes direct use of _______ to make _______.
CO2, ATP, and NADPH.....sugar
Unique features of vertebrates include the presence of a _________.
Which of the following chromosomal mutations can increase the mass of DNA present in an organism's genome, creating superfluous DNA that may undergo further changes to produce entirely new genes?
THe following are all defining characteristics of land plants except _______.
vascular tissue.
Which of the following is true of the process of meiosis?
Four haploid cells result.
Which of the following statements concerning the breakdown of glucose to CO2 and water is(are) true?

a. The breakdown of glucose is exergonic

b. Adding electrons to another substance is known as reduction.

c. An electron acceptor is called the reducing agent.

d. A and B only are correct

e. A,B, and C are correct
A and B only are correct.
The stomach mixes the food with the secretions of the stomach wall to form ________.
acid chyme
Most nutrients are absorbed across the epithelium of the
small intestine
Which of these lifestyle choices will not increase cancer risk?
a high fiber diet
All of the follower were determined directly from xray diffraction photography of crystallized DNA except
the sequence of nucleotides
How can a sing RNA transcript be translated into different polypeptides
There is more than one way to splice an RNA transcript
In makeing a movie, sometimes an editor will cut out one piece of film and insert another. This is analogous to which of the following?
Excision Repair
The first step of the Calvin cycle is the incorporation of ______ into ________
CO2... RuBP
Why are emerging viruses especially dangerous?
They are spreading to populations that have had no prior historical experience with them.
Which of these syndromes afflicts males only?
Ducheenne muscular dystrophy
Two species of meadowlarks with different mating songs
Seeds develop from _________
Mutualistic associations of plant roots and fungi are called __________
Why are human testes located in an external sac rather than in the abdominal cavity?
so the testes can kept coller than the body's interior
The main function of muscle tissue is
The chromosome makeup of a daughter cell at the completion of meiosis I
Most homeostasic mechanisms depend on ____________.
negative feedback
What is the difference between abenign and malignant tumor?
Benign tumors do not metastasize; malignant tumors do.
What is the primary mechanism by which CO2 contributes to global warming?
by preventing the radiation of heat from the the Earth to space
What protects RNA from attack by cytoplasmic enzymes?
a cap and tail
produces NADPH
light reactions alone
Which of the following equations best summarizes photosynthesis?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
What is the most important missing evidence or observation in Darwin's theory of 1859?
the source of genetic variation
Rat pups............which of these terms is(are) appropriately applied to this situation?
A,B, C
Photosynthesis is carried out by
Features unique to mammals include
the presence of hair
Which of the following structures is/are characteristics of vertebrates
Pharyngeal slits and dorals, hollow nerve cord
In birds, sex is detrmind by a ZW chromosome scheme. Males are ZZ and females are ZW. A lethal recessive allele that causes dealth of the embryo occurs on the Z chromosome in pigeons. What would be the sex ratio in the offspring of a cross between a male heterozygous for the leathal allele and a normal female?
2:1 male to female
IF a strand of DNA has the sequence AAGCTC, transcription will result in a_________
single RNA stand with the sequence: UUCGAG
A color-blind woman mates with a man who is not color-blind. All of the sons and none of the daughters are color-blind. What is the best explanation of this result?
The gene for color vision is linked to the x chromosome
Pharyngeal gill slits appear to have functioned first as
suspension-feeding devices
The first cells to split water_____
were prokaryotes
Which of the following is an example of stablizing selection?
the birth weight at which newborn humans are most likely to survive and the average weight of newborn humans are about the same.
Centromeres of sister chromatids uncouple and chromatids separate.
anaphase II
How many autosomes do humans have
CO2 fixation

a. photosynthesis
b. respiration
c. both photosynthesis and respiration
d. neither photsynthesis and respiration
Dinosaurs were extinct by the end of the
is the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment.
The best conclusion conerning delta is that the cells...
are actually in the GO phase
Which of the metabolic pathways is common to both aerobic and anaerobic processes of sugar breakdown?
The expressed regions of eukaryotic genes are called ________.
A group of cells is assayed for DNA..... Those cells would have __________ picograms at the end of the S phase and __________ picograms at the end of G2.
A __________ is an example of an organism that can reproduce asexually.
enhances seperation of DNA strands during replication.
A eaukaryotic cell lacking telomerase would
undergo a reduction in chromosomal length
In cellular respiraion, most ATP is produced DIRECTLY as a result of __________.
the movement of hydrogen ions accross the innner mitochondrial membrane
According to the concept of punctuated equillibrium, the "sudden" appearance of a new species in the fossil record means that
speciation occurred over many thousands of years
The smallest unit of evolution is the ________.
What comprises human semen?
sperm and secretions from the prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, and seminal vesicles
Humans use the calories they obtain from ____ as their source of energy
The recombination frequency between gene B and C is 11%. ......

a. DBC
b. DCB
c. CDB
d. BCD
Matrices of connective tissue unclude all of the following except:

a. chondroitin sulfate of cartilage
b. plasma of blood
c. hydroxyapatite of bone
d. actin and myosin of muscle
e. more than one above is correct
actin and myosin of muscle
Which of the following is not considered an intrinsic reproductive isolating mechanism?
geographic isolation
Natural Selection can be defined as ________
desent with modification
triggers the cell's passage past the G2 checkpoint into mitosis
which of the following is an example of diversifying selection?
in different parts of Africa a tasty butterfly species mimics differet distasteful butterfly species
The early suggestion that the oxygen O@ liberated from plants during photosynthesis comes from water was
confirmed by experiments using oxygen-18
What is responsible for the yellow-orange coloration leaves in the fall
Cutting down trees_______
increases sthe amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere
Figure 10 shows the absorbtion spectrum for chloyophyll a and athe action spectrum for phyotosynthesis. Why are they different?
Other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a
What name is given to the specific location of a gene on a chromosome
There is good evidence for linkage when
genes do not segregate independently during meiosis
Plant cells that contain the organelle responsible for photosynthesis are concentrated in cells of the
Movement of the chromosomes during anaphase would be most affected by a drug that
prevented shortening of microtubules
In order to make a clone for a mammalian cell, the cell must
Which of the following tissues lines the kidney ducts?
Glycolysis is believed to be one of the most ancient of metabolic processes. Which statement below least supports this idea?
If run in reverse, glycolysis will build glucose molecules.
Which of the following fibers is responsible for the resistant property of tendons?
collagenous fibers
produced by the stomache lining
the modern phrasing of Beadles and Tatum's hypothesis is "one gene-one______
In which reaction is a net gain of ATP finally realized from glycolysis?
Which reaction shows a split of one molecule into two smaller molecules?
Fructose diphosphate
What type of bond joins the bases of complementary DNA strands?
What subdiscipline of biology unites all of biology into a single science?
Which of the following is NOT a stage of mitosis?
Anaerobic respiration produces a maximum of ______ ATP per glucose.
Which of he following is analogous to telomeres?
the two ends of a shoe lace
During metaphase I, _______
tetrads line up on the midline of the cell
A toung relative of yours has never had much energy..... Which is the best explanation for his condition
His mitochondria lack the transport protein that moves pyruvate across the outer mitochondrial membrane.
A number of characteristics are very similar......... Of the following, which characteristic does not provide evidence for an evolutionary close relationship between these two groups (that is, whixh is not a shared derived character?)
alternation of generations
What is peristalsis?
smooth muscle contractions that move food through the alimentary canal
Genetically, human __________.
children are more closely related to their mother than their father
Which of the following vitamins is INCORRECTLY associated with its use?
Vitamin K = production of red blood cells
How do the daughter cells at the end of mitosis and cytokinesis compare with their parent cell when it was in G1 of the cell cycle?
The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and the same amount of DNA
Aerobic cellular respiration generates about _______ ATP from one glucose.
Which of the following structures is inorrectly paired with its function?
fallopian tube -- site of normal embryonic implantation
In the figure above, mitosis is represented by which number?
What is the frequency of the B allele?
What is indicated by the presence of RNA transcripts of lactose-utilizing genes within E. coli?
the presence of lactose
A gene operon consists of
transcribed genes and a promoter only
The correct sequence of the stages of the cell cycle is _______
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Plant spores give rise directly to
In a hypothetical situation, a certain species of flea feeds.... is possible over time______ will occur. 1,2,3,4, or 5
1 through 5
Which of these plays a role in the regulation of transcription in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter
hormones that trigger ovulation
Biodiversity hot spots are recognized on the basis of
all of the above
Which of the following occurs during prophase?
the mitotic spindle begins to form
Which of the following is least related to the others in the list?
When is amniocentesis usually done?
between weeks fourteen and twenty of pregnancy
What is a karyotype?
a display of homologous chromosomes of a cell organized in relation to their number, size and type
LL OF THE OFFSPRING OF A CROSS BETWEEN A BLACK EYED MEDALIEN AND AN ORANGE-EYED MEDALIEN HAVE BLACK EYES. This means that the allele for black eyes is ______ the allele for orange eyes.
dominant to
Which of the following statements is completely true?
Oxidation is the loss of electrons; reduction is the gain of electrons
Which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with glycolysis?
an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose bus is not metabolized
A physiologist is a biologist who studies
the function of body parts
Which of the following colors contributes the LEAST energy to photosynthesis?
What proportion of the population is brobably heterozygous (Aa) for this trait?
As a research scientist, you measure the amount of ATP and NADPH consumed by the Calvin cycle in 1 hour...... Where did the extra ATP molecules come from?
cyclic electron flow
Chromatin consists of
DNA and Protien
Who discovered the structure of DNA?
Watson and Crick
Upon completion of telophase I and cytokinesis there is (are) _________ cells
two haploid
The chemiosomotic process in chloroplasts involves the
establishment of a proton gradient
The founder effect differs from a population bottleneck in that the founder effect________
involves the isolation of a small colony of individuals from a larger population
WHich one of the following is a result of apoptosis?
formation of fingers in humans
All of the events listed below occur in the energy-capturing light reaction of photoynthesis except
carbon-dioxide is incorporated into PGA
Characid fishes ae naturally found only in South America and Africa....
Characid fishes arose prior to the seperation of the African and South American continents.
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is directly involved in
Accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
Where in a woman's reproductive tract does fertilization most often take place?
in the upper part of the oviduct
At which of the following gestational ages does a developing human first look obviously human and not like other vertebrate embryos?
9 weeks
If 2 subspecies, A and B are not considered separate species even though they cannot interbreed, then
gene flow between A and B may exist through other related subspecies.
Homologous chromosomes synapse and crossing over occurs.
meiosis I only
What is the primary function of the light reactions of photosynthesis?
to produce ATP and NADPH
The centromere is a region in which
chromatids are attached to one another
Which of the following events occurs during prophase I of meiosis?
synapsis and crossing over occur
The genes for body color and wing shape are linked.

A. CROSS I results give evidence supporting the statement
B. CROSS I results give evidence against the statement
C. CROSS II results give evidence supporting the statement
D. CROSS II results give evidence against the statement
E. Neither CROSS I nor CROSS II results support the statement
CROSS II results give evidence supporting the statement.
Peptide bonds form between ________.
amino acids
Which of the life cycles is typical for animals (roman numerals)
Wjen two frog species, Rana pipiens and Rana sylvatica, mate, the offspring die early in embryonic development. This is an example of _________.
hybrid inviability
In trying to determine whether DNA or protein was the genetic material, Al Hershey and Martha Chase made use of which of the following facts?
A and B only
What happens when T2 phages are grown in the presence of radioactive phosphorus?
Their DNA becomes radioactive
Which of the following would be a position held by a punctuationalist?

A. Natural selection is unimportant as a mechanism of evolution.

B. Given enough time, most existing species will gradually evolve into new species.

C. A new species forms most of its unique features as it comes into existence and then changes little for the duration of its existance.

D. Most speciation is anagenic.

E. One should expect to find many transitional fossils left by organisms in the process of forming a new species
A new species forms most of its unique features as it comes into existence and then changes little for the duration of its existance.
Which of these is true about human sperm cells?

A. they have 46 chromosomes
B. they are highly motile
C. they are rich in nutrient material
D. They are less numerous than ova
E. They are liberated from the corous luteum
They are highly motile
In general, herbivorous mammals have teeth for ______.
One possible result of chromosomal breakage is for a fragment to join a nonhomologous chromosome. This is called ________.
a translocation
What is the key to the recognition of codominance?
the heterozygote expresses the phenotype of both homozygotes
When the wall of the stomach fails to protet itself from erosion by gastric juice, the result is __________.
a gastric ulcer
One of the major distinctions between plants and the green algea is that _______.
embryos are not retained within parental tissues in green algea.
As a result of glycolysis there is a NET gain of ________ ATPs.
An individual heterozygous for cystic fibrosis _______.
is a carrier
The significance of a synaptonemal complex is that it
holds homologous chromosomes tightly together
Photosynthetic organisms are _______.
Reffering to a plant sexual life cycle, which of the following terms describes the process that leads directly to the formation of gametes?
gametophyte mitosis
When you started out, you were a single cell. You are now made of many cells; some of these function as liver cells, some as muscle cells...... WHat name is given to the process responsible for this?
cellular differentiation
Which of the following is least related to the others on the list?

lagging strand
okazaki fragment
leading strand
What is the probability that a daughter will inherit an X-linked recessive trait from her father?
What is the phenotype of an individual who is heterozygous for dimples?
What is the name given to the process by which a larva develops into an adult?
The biological species concept cannot be applied to ________.
Which of the following vitamins is fat soluble?
In metabolic terms, dogs are best described as _________.
obligate aerobes
All of the following statements about NAD+ are true except:
NAD+ has more chemical energy than NADH
Which process in eukaryotic cells will normally proceed whether O2 is present or absent?
Variations in populations can be demonstrated by studying which of the following?
AN animal with a larval form that disperses by drifting in ocean currents and an adult form that is attached to a surface is most likely to exhibit _______ as a larva and _______ as an adult.
radial symmetry..... radial symmetry