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32 Cards in this Set

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Endemism
Gigantism
Dwarfism
Flightlessness
Island Patterns:
End: native to only one place
Gigantism: Species much bigger than elsewhere
Dwarfism: Species much smaller than elsewhere
Flightlessness: Organisms that could fly, can't fly!
Linnaeus
Systema naturae
Catalog of species
Lamarck
1836-First suggestion that species might evolve from other species
Inheritance of Acquired Traits
Darwin
HMS Beagle, barnacles
1844 - first Natural Selection
1858 - Alfred Russel Wallace sends letter
1859 - publishes letter
Theory of Natural Selection
1. There is variation among individuals in a population
2. Some of this variation is heritable
3. More offspring are produced than can survive
4. Those variants that best meet environmental challenges will survive and reproduce
Gregor Mendel
• Became a monk in Belgium where he started working with peas
• Presented results in 1865 and published in an obscure journal in 1866
• Nobody read it though…until 1900
Sex Chromosomes vs. Autosomes
Chromosomes which are matched in one sex and unpaired or absent in the opposite sex
Matched chromosomes in both sexes
Gene
Determinant of a trait of an organism (codes for protein or functional piece of RNA)
Locus
Locus: Position on chromosome where gene is found
Allele
Allele: Variants of a gene. (brown allele for the eye color gene)
Diploid vs haploid
Diploid: having two copies of every gene
Haploid: single copy of every gene (unpaired chromosomes)
Genotype
Phenotype
Genotype: Genetic constitution of an organism
Phenotype: Expression of genotype (structural or functional) (brown hair, blue eyes, sweating profusely) You can see it…
Mitosis
Meiosis
Mitosis – somatic cells
Meiosis – germ cells
Principle of Segregation
Two genes are split from each parent. Each allele is equally likely in offspring
Principle of Independent Assortment
For genes on different chromosomes, genes assort independently in meiosis
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Looked at Fruitflies
Looked at fruitflies!
One day, a MUTANT Showed up in his research…he had white eyes, and could breathe fire
He decided to cross wild type (red-eyed female) with mutant male.
(sex linked traits)
Turner Syndrome
When someone only has 45 chromosomes, with one missing allele from the sex gene (never develops)
Klinefelter
Klinefelter
Someone has 47 chromosomes, 2 XX’s from the mom, one Y from the dad. (transvestite
Non-disjunction
Non-disjunction: doubled x chromosome from one parent maybe or lack of chromosome from one parent
like Turner Syndrome or Klinefelter
Incomplete Dominance
incomplete dominance (sometimes called partial dominance) is a heterozygous genotype that creates an intermediate phenotype. In this case, only one allele (usually the wild type) at the single locus is expressed, creating an intermediate phenotype
Red, pink, white
Codominance
Neither phenotype is completely dominant. Heterzygotes express both phenotypes
blood types
Penetrance
% of population with phenotype coded for by a particular genotype
(epistatic effects, suppressor genes)
Expressivity
Expressivity: degree to which a phenotype is expressed
Phenotypic Plasticity!!!
Interaction of genes and environment
• Regulatory genes
Talking Trees
Allelochemicals – herbivore deterrants
Expensive to make, degrade quickly

They would remove 7% of the leaf, and within 52 hours, allelochemical concentration went up!
Then! They put two plants next to each other, and ripped off 7% of the leaves from one plant. The other plant started manufacturing allelochemicals as well!
Airborne chemicals…

Snails:
It’s better to have soft shells when there’s no predators, better reproduction, growth, hard shells when there are crabs
Snails are put into water where Cancer crab used to be, it gets harder shell
Modern Evolution
Modern Evolution: any change in allele frequencies
Agents of evolutionary change
1. Selection
2. Mutation
3. Gene flow (migration)
• two populations in different places exchange genetic material
4. Genetic Drift (sampling error)
Hardy-Weinberg
In an infinitely large, randomly mating population, where selection, gene flow, mutation, and genetic drift do not occur, then:
1. Allele frequencies do not change over time
2. Genotype frequencies will be p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
Non-random mating
Violation of Hardy-weinberg
Assortative Mating – like mates with like
Height, social class, body type, religion, race, interests, geography
Disassortative mating – unlike individuals mate
• Tan striped females – good at finding food
• White striped males – good defenders, poor foraging
p=q=.5
p = q = .5
inbreeding depression, loss of vigor by elimination of heterozygotes
mutation
Only evolutionary mechanism that increases allelic diversity
Life Plant Life Cycle
1. Gemetophye (1N haploid)
2. Eggs or sperm
3. Sporophyte (2N = diploid)
4. Spores (1N)
Cambrian Explosion
All modern phyla of animals appeared suddenly (600 mya)
Unprecedented rate of speciation
WHY?
O2 became available
Speculations: no way to test any belief