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213 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When photosynthesis likely evolved and it's distribution in lifes clades
-Glycolysis evolved first
-Photosynthesis came from something else
-Belief that first photosynthesis was found in cyanobacteria, which evolved with the oxygenation of the earth's atmosphere

Eukaryote distribution includes algae and
embryophytes; Prokaryotes distribution is throughout Bacteria and
Where oxygenation abilities evolved
With the oxygenation of the earth's atmosphere; cyanobacteria is the only clade with oxygenation abilities
The universal photosynthetic structure
‘antenna - reaction center’ design; chlorophyll based light harvesting pigments, which absorbs visible light; heterodimeric protein core of reaction center; the two different proteins suggest origin as monomeric structure with gene
The 'problem' of chlorophyll biosynthesis
• all oxygen evolving photosynthetic groups use
chl a
• all other bacteria use other chl -

This insinuates that biosynthesis recapitulates phylogeny
Phylogenetic distribution of photosynthesis
• Prokaryotes
CLADES: greensulfur bacteria, gram
positive bacteria,
and filamentous green non-sulfur bacteria
Only clade in Prokaryotes with oxygenation abilities, it is said photosynthesis evolved from this
Exception to universal photosynthetic structure-Halobacteria, etc
Contain retinal - protein system as a
complex molecular structure, and the energy yield is quite small; this means that photosynthesis has evolved at least twice
What is a plant?
Plants are photosynthetic eukaryotes
– including algae

Plants are monophyletic.

A more derived group of plants is called the
embryophytes, which produce an embryo that is protected by tissues of the parent
What is an embryophyte and how is it different from algae?
A more derived group of plants is called the
embryophytes, which produce an embryo that is protected by tissues of the parent

3 Nontracheophytes and 7 tracheophytes make up the 10 phyla of embryophytes

It is different from algae because it has sterile tissue within the reproductive organs.
What is a tracheophyte (versus a non-tracheophyte)?
liverworts, hornworts, and mosses – nontracheophytes. They lack tracheids and are nonvascular
What is the alteration of generations that is important in embryophytes?
Alternation of generations is a universal
feature of the life cycles of plants. This is too complicated to write in a notecard so book must be referred.
What are characteristics that allow for invasion of the land?
– Cuticle-a waxy covering that prevents drying
– Gametangia-enclosure for gametes to prevent drying
– Embryos-protected, young sporophytes
– Pigments-protection against mutagenic UV radiation
– Spore wall thickening-prevent drying and resist decay
– Mychorhizzae-mutualistic association with a fungus to
promotes nutrient uptake from the soil***
– Stomata–controllable ‘pore’ in tissue that regulate water loss
and CO2 uptake
– Aerenchyma–invaginations in tissue that create moist
internal surface area for controlled gas exchange
How do ancient plants move resources around their bodies?
Ancient plants are the nontracheophytes. Many grow in dense masses through which water can move by capillary action. They have leaf-like structures that catch and hold water that
splashes onto them. They are small enough that minerals can be distributed evenly by diffusion.
What is the difference between phloem and xylem?
Xylem conducts water and minerals in the soil. It can also provide support. (Tracheids are simple xylem that conduct water throughout the plant body.)
The phloem are alive, and transport carbohydrates and other materials throughout the plant. The wood acts as a secondary xylem, and the bark the secondary phloem.
Differences between heterosporous and homosporous plants
• Plants that bear a single type of spore are said to
be homosporous.

• Plants with two distinct types of spores evolved
later, and are said to be heterosporous.

These are both in tracheophytes.
The definition of a 'seed'
• A seed may contain tissues from three generations.
– Seed coat and megasporangium develop from the
diploid sporophyte parent.
– In the megasporangium, the haploid female
gametophyte tissue is of the next generation.
– The center of the seed contains a third generation, the
embryo of the new diploid sporophyte.
The characteristics (morphological and physiological) associated with the production of secondary growth
Growth in the diameter of the stems and roots, produced by these
meristematic regions is called secondary growth.

- Wood is secondary xylem.
– Bark is everything produced external to the vascular cambium (including
secondary phloem).
The differences between trachieds and vessel elements
Vessel elements are generally larger in diameter than tracheids and are laid down end-to-end to form hollow tubes.

Xylem in angiosperms consists of vessel elements in addition to tracheids
Changes in phloem in Angiosperms
• Sieve tube elements (Phloem) in Angiosperms are
stacked, similar to xylem

Their phloem contains companion cells (assists with metabolic issues
associated with transport).

Gymnosperms only have simple phloem
Synapomorphies of Angiosperms (including Monocots and Eudicots)
For the Angiosperms:

Two main types of root system: taproot and fibrous root.

Eduicots have taproot systemt- this has a single, large, and deep-growning primary root with smaller roots portruding

Monocots (and some eudicots) have a fibrous root system
composed of numerous thin roots roughly equal in diameter. This fibrous system holds soil in place very well.

• Monocots - a single embryonic cotyledon (grasses, cattails, lilies, orchids, and palms)
• Eudicots - two cotyledons, and include the majority of familiar seed plants
How water moves in plants as a function of variation in solute and pressure potentials (between cells and within whole plants and to the atmosphere)
• Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a membrane –
primary means of water transport in plants
• Osmotic potential, or solute potential, determines the direction of water movement across a membrane.
– Dissolved solutes have the effect of lowering the concentration of
water (changing the potential energy).
– Greater solute concentration results in a more negative solute
potential and a greater the tendency of water to diffuse to the solution.

Water potential is the tendency of a solution to take up water from pure water

Remember the transpiratio-tension-cohesion theory
The role of stomata in controlling the evaporative loss of water and balancing carbon dioxide uptake.
When water is witheld from plant-Rates of photosynthesis declines so the stomata close- short.

• Stomata, or pores, in the epidermis
allow CO2 to enter by diffusion.
• Guard cells control the opening and
closing of the stomata.
• Most plants open their stomata only
when the light is intense enough to
maintain photosynthesis.
• Stomata also close if too much water is
being lost.
• Stomatal aperture is regulated by controlling K+
concentrations in the guard cells.
How when substantial tension develops, a break-down of the continuous stream of water from the roots to the shoots, leaves and atmosphere occurs. This constrains where plants can grow.
Stomata operate to avoid of catastrophic xylem dysfunction(cavitation), that occurs through the development of excessive tension
Dessication induced cavitation versus freez-thaw induced cavitation (and their interaction).
• Desiccation-induced – vulnerability to cavitation
is a function of air entry from pit membrane; size and number of pits becomes the important traits

• Freeze-thaw induced – vulnerability occurs due to
insoluble gases in sap that form bubbles under repeated low temperature conditions; differences in xylem diameter is important
The importance of the maintenance of turgor for growth (cells grow by maintaining positive pressure that can expand cell walls)
turgor= pressure potential, which must be positive for cell growth.

cells grow by maintaining positive pressure that can expand cell walls
The pressure flow model of transport (interactions between xylem and phloem)
Translocation of Substances in the Phloem
• Source sieve tube cells have a greater sucrose concentration that
surrounding cells
– water enters by osmosis.
– causes greater pressure
potential at the source, so that the sap moves by bulk flow towards the sink.
• Sucrose is unloaded actively at the sink, maintaining the solute and water potential gradients
Where are nutrients located, and where do most come from in terrestrial ecosystems?
Mineral nutrients in the soil
-98% bound in organic matter
-2% absorbed on soil colloids
-.2% dissolved in soil water

-C02 comes from air
-Hydrogen from water
-Nitrogen in short supply; bacteria convert the N2 in the air to nitrogen that plants can use

-Plants take up most nutrients from the soil solution
cyanobacteria is only prokaryot that produces... via photosynthesis
porkaryotes that DO NOT produce oxygen via photosynthesis
green sulfur bacteria. gram positive bacteria. purple bacteria
chloroplast of photosynthetic protests come from
once free living cyanobacteria
mitochondria and chlorolast group with...
eukaryotes and prokaryotes
universal design of photosynthetic structure includes...
antena, harvesting pigments, protein core reaction center
how is sugar removed to the cytosol
via phtotophate translocator, c02 fixation by rubisco is maintained/or increased
what are some advantages to moving to land?
stomata, gametangia, cuticles, pigments, thick cell walls
derived non-seed plats and seed plants share what synapomorphy?
How are hornwarts different from liverworts and mosses?
They formsymbiotic associations with nitrogen filling cyanobacteria
Where do parts of flowers in agiosperms come from?
modifed leaves
Water movement from soil to the plant occurs from...
tension developed form the evaporative loss of water from leaves
Nitrogen is main limiting factor in plant communitities because...
plants need nitorgen to construct proteins
Life evolved the ability to transform light energy into chemical bonds used in metabolism at what time? and through the evolution of what?
3.6+ billion years ago; through the evolution of much of the glycolitic pathway
photosystem I and II can be found...
operating in isolation bacteria, and in eukaryotic photoautotrophic cells
What happens when sugars produced in the chloroplast ARE NOT removed to the cytosol via photophate translocator
Calvin cycle will not operate; chloroplats fill with starch
Ecdysozoan lineage is characterized by...
A nonliving external covering (exoskeleton/cuticle)
An animal with an exoskeleton grows by...
periodically shedding its exoskeleton/replacing it larger one (molding)
Many members of several phyla of marine worms with thin cuticles are descendants of...
early slpit in acdysozoan lineage
Tough cuticles are found in memebrs of which two phyla
the horsehair worms and roundworms
Roundworms fall into which category?
Animals with rigid exoskeletons lack what for locomotion? How do they move?
cilia; have appendages that can be moved by muscles
Most reserachers agree that the arthropod groups are ...
Onychorophorans and tardigrades have what similar physical property? What are they similar to?
soft, unjointed leg; ancestral arthropods
What eras did trilobites flourish in? When did they become extinct?
Cambrain and Ordovician; Paleozoic
Name the three regions that divide the crustacean/insect body
head, thorax, abdomen
List some crustaceans
Shrimp, lobster, crayfish, crabs, sow bugs, sand fleas, etc
Link Crustacean lineage to athropods
Crustacean lineage is ancestral to all arthropods
Where did the wings of insects come from?
dorsal branches of multibranchal ancestral apendages
what is a myriopod?
Many segments, many pairs of legs (centipede, milipede)
Where did protosome evolution take place?
Neurons communicate together at junctions called
synapses, where plasma membranes of two cells come close together
Action potential is...
rapid reversal in charge across a portion fo the plasma membrane
Chemoreceptors are...
responsible for smell, taste, and sensing of phermones
Effectors are...
what enable animals to respond to information from their internal and external enironments. Effecotrs generate mechanical forces and cuase movement.
Microtubule vs. Microfilament
both regulate cell movement. tube= cilia, flagella; filament= allow for chape change and move
Smooth vs. Cardiac vs. Skeletal vertebrate muscle
Smooth=n contractile force for inner organs; cardiac= electronically connected , skeletol= bundles of muscle fiber, many nucleii
What is an ecosystem?
all organisms in an area and the physical environment in which they interact; Ecosystems are characterized by energy flow and structural linkages (trophic structure)
What is ecosystem ecology?
Is the central idea of ecosystems. It works under the context of Earth system science, climatology, and hydrology, and towards the mechanism of Physiological ecology, soil science, geochemistry, population ecology, and communit ecology.
What are the components of energetics?
1)Gross primary production (GPP): Total conversion of energy to usable form (ecosystem photosynthesis)
2) Net Primary Production (NPP): Fraction of GPP stored in plant biomass
3) Respiration (R): autotrophic and hetrotrophic
4) GPP= NPP + GEP (Gross Ecosystem Production)
4)NEE (net ecosystem exchange)= Respiration- GEP
What is the "interaction hypothesis" of community ecology?
community is an assembly of close-knoit species; Species are locked together by interactions that cause communities to function as integrated units; Community composition is a function of strict “assembly rules”; F.E. Clements (around 1936)
What is the "individualistic hypothesis" of community ecology?
• Then how can there be “assembly rules” ?
– finite # of “strategies” for dealing with abiotic
extremes (low resources, etc).
– Due to the inter-relatedness of species
Major consequence from an individualistic view
• Initial events dictate the pattern of
replacement of species through time
following a disturbance
What promotes species coexistence?
niche overlap; "competition free space"; variation in space or time
What is the role of the niche?
small community of animals/plants; produces more local interactions
Given there is species coexistence, what drives the variation we see in biodiversity across the globe?
competition. diversity is beneficial because it results in stability and resilience.
Ecdysozoan lineage is characterized by...
A nonliving external covering (exoskeleton/cuticle)
What was the advantage of subdivision of the body cavity for insects?
better movement in water
The outer covering of ecdosozoans
ranges from very thin to very hard and rigid
primary suport for members of phyla of small worms is...
hydrostatic skeletons
why are roundworms abundant and diverse?
they are parasitic and free-living; eat wide variety of foods
arthropod skeleton composed of
chitin (mix of proteins and polysaccharide)
Which deutrosomes have three-part body plans?
Acorn worms, pterobranchs
pharyngeal basket is...
used by adult ascidians to capture food
pharnegal gill slits of chorades originallly functioned as sites for
both intake of oxygen and release of co2
key to vertebrate body plan
vertebral column where two pairs of apendages are attatched
in fishes, swim bladders evolved from
lunglike sacs
Why do amphibians lay eggs in water?
eggs quicly lose water and desiccate if dry
Why did bidealism evolve to human era
it is more efficient than quardrapedal locomotion, frees forlimbs to manipulate objects
How are monotremes different from other mamals?
they lay eggs
Describe echinoderms
Have pentadadially symetrical body plan, unique vascular system, calcified internal skeleton
within a neuron, information moves from... to ...
dendrite to cell body to axon
resting potential in neuron is due to
open K+ channels
where did jaws evolve from?
anterior gill arches
where did amphibians come from?
lung-fish ancestors
When/where did birds come?
175 mya from feathered dinosaur ancestors
How are mammals unique
suckle young with milk secreted by mammary glands
Difference between negative and positive feedback
Negative: corrects deviations from set point (transpiration); positive= amplifies responses (blood clot)
Difference between homeotherms and poikiliotherms
homeo= maintain constant body temperature; poi= no
Endotherm vs. Ectotherm
Produce metabolic heat to elevate temperature; enviroment makes heat
Where is vertebrate thermostat located?
diffusion in animals
how respiratory gases (co2, o2) exchanged betwen body fluids and environment
Ways to adapt to maximize gas exchange
increasing surface area, maximizing partial presure gradiants (decrease thickness), ventilating outer surface with respiratory medium, perfusing inner surface with blood
Hemoglobin connects to...
oxygen in red blod cells
myoglobin serves as...
an 02 reserve in muscle. It also binds 02 and Po2.
c02 is tranferred in the blood principally as...
bicarbonate ions
As temperature rises, 02 content in water....
increased altitude, ... the amount of 92
When the level of c02 rises, the rate of respiration ...
In open circulatory systems, the blood or tissue fluid leaves ... and percolates through...
vessels; tissues
In closed circulatory systems, the blood is contained in...
a series of vessels
The evolutionary of the vertebrate heart has led to
an increasing seperation of blood that flows to the gas exchange organs and blood that flows to the rest of the body
How has the vertebrate heart evolved
two chambers in fishes to three in amphibians to four in crocodilians, mamals, and birds
systole vs. siastole
S= ventricles contratc; d=relax
describe red blood cells, platelits, and plasma
rbc= transport respiratory gasses, plat=blod clotting, plasma=mix of gases, ions, proteins, and molecules with
blood flow throug capillary beds are controlled by
autoregulatory mechanisms, hormones, and the autonomic nervous system
Blood pressure is controlled by
hormones vasopressin and angiotensin
animals are heterotrophs that...
derive their energy and molecular building blocks from autotrophs
For animals, food provides...
essential carbon skeletons that they cannot synthesize themselves
what is the difference between saprotrophs/detrtivores and filter feeders, herbivores, and carnovores
s/d depends on dead organic matter, filter= train aquatic envirnoment for small food items, h= plants, c= animals
long-term energy is stored in
Aquatic vs. Terrestrial animal differences in elimiating nitrogenous wastes
a= diffusion acros gill membranes, t= converts it to uric acid/urea befoe excretion
Function of renin
activates agiotensin, which constructs blood vessels in kidney, releases aldosterone, which enhances water absorption
function of nephron
processes blood and turns filtrate to urin
ANP is...
atrial natriuretic peptide which causes increases excretion of salt and water
Deprivation experiment vs. Hybridization experiment
D= determines what is acquired by depriving animal of certain lesson; H= determines what is gentically acquired by mixing species
eusocial species include... in their social groups
Which achieve higher population densities? small individuals or large individuals
what influences species' ranges
speciation process, dispersonal ability, predators, and competition
age distribution of a population is determined by
timing of births and deaths within a population
commensalists are...
two organisms athat use the same resources when that resource is short in supply
What is the most abundant cell type in the human brain?
glial cell
What is equation 1b?
r=(lnRo)/T Ro=Life expectancy of offspring; make sure you half this number for both sexes
What are the "types"
Type 1=humans
Type 1-2=animals
Type 4 = insects and fish
What are the 3 principle pairwise interactions?
Competition, predator-prey (host-parasite), and mutualism
Why is a species realized niche smaller than its fundamental niche?
b/c of its history and also its interactions with other species
What factors can prevent the extermination of inferior by superior competitors?
Interactions with other species and physical disturbance
Robert MacArthur proposed that Dendroica warblers coexist by virtue of...
behavioral differences that reduce competition among them.
What are examples of interference competition?
Competition for light by plants and competition for space by barnacles. (NOT Competition for insects by foliage gleaning birds.)
Dynamically, predator-prey systems are...
What is a trophic level?
the number of steps through which energy passes to reach the organisms in it. The lynx-hare system is a three-trophic level system: Vegetation- Herbivore-Predator
In experiments on hare populations the effect of partial predator exclusion was observed to be...
greater when the hares were given supplemental food
In reconstructing outbreaks of insect pests from tree rings, scientists utilize ring width data from...
2 species- they can defoliate vast tracks of forest
The yucca-yucca moth system is an example of a(n)
obligate mutualism-As the name implies, an obligatory contact exists between different organisms. (bee to pollen, etc. kind of mutualism-both organisms benefit)
Ecosystems in which all species are equally likely to interact with each other are (most or least) susceptible to destabilization by external perturbations.
MOST-b/c they develop relationships and become somewhat used to their routines
Describe the interactions between yuccas, yuuca moths, and moths of the genus Prodoxus.
Flowers require services of moths for pollination, moths lay eggs inside ovary, larvae eat a portion of the developing seeds. The Produxus are "fake yucca moths" that lay eggs but don't help pollinate the flower.
The carrying capacity of environment (equilibrial density) of the population
What characteristics distinguish echinoderms from chordates?
Pentameral vs. bilateral symmetry in adults
Sea stars have...
a water vascular system which they use for locomotion and gas exchange.
-an eversible stomach which can be inserted between the valves of their molluscan prey, the soft parts of which are then digested "in situ".
-ciliated larvae that are bilaterally symmetric.
Echinoderms are divided into two principal groups (subphyla). Of these, the 1.________ are mostly extinct, being represented by living crinoids (sea lilies and feather stars). The 2._____________include sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, sea stars and brittle stars.
1. Pelmetozoa
2. Eleutherozoa
The hemichordate character suggesting chordate affinities is 1.________ that facillitate 2.__________
1.presence of pharyngeal gill slits

2.gas exchange
Vertebrate trunk muscles are arranged in ">-"shaped bundles called myomeres that attach to sheets of connective tissue, called myocommata. The latter, in turn, are anchored to the _______________.
Vertebral Column

Labeling of the Diagram located in Lecture 9, top of figure 2
Label a. spinal cord (dorsal nerve cord); b. notochord; c. pharynx; d. pharyngeal gill slits; e. heart; f. lung.
Which of the following statements regarding vertebrate gills are correct?
Filter feeding came first; repiratory function, later.
The vertebrate jaw evolved from
the gill arches of primitive chordates.
What is the modern day version of Haeckel's Ontogenetic Law? What was the original from?
The modern formulation is "Ontogeny (development) recapitulates embryonic states of ancestral forms." The original assertion was "Ontogeny recapitualtes phylogeny."
Give two examples from vertebrate evolution that illustrate the modern day version of Haeckel's Ontogenetic Law.
Incorporation of gill arches into the jaw; fusion of upper jaw bones with bones enclosing the braincase; conversion of elements of the reptillian jaw (articular, quadrate) into mammalian middle ear ossicles.
What is the neotenic theory of chordate origins?
Chordates descended from free-swimming tunicate larvae that became sexually competent before settling and metamorphosing into sessile adults.
What is the evidence for the neotenic theory of chordate origins?
Anatomical features of free-swimming tunicate larva - principally the dorsal nerve cord and the notochord.
An important theme in early vertebrate evolution was progressive
integration of the visceral and somatic parts of the body.
Four extant groups of vertebrates?
Agnatha - jawless fish.
Chondrichthyes - cartilaginous fishes (sharks and rays).
Osteichthyes - bony fish.
Tetrapods - amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals.
Most classes of vertebrates are characterized by paired appendages. Which is not?
Agnatha (jawless fish)
Name something true of Placoderms
Included fearsome predators called arthrodires.
What is true of Actinopterygians?
they are also called ray-finned fish. Actinopterygians evolved in freshwater. Re-invaded marine environments during the Mesozoic, in which regard their success may have contributed to the extinction of ichthyosaurs.
Primitive actinopterygians had lungs (Figure 3), a character probably inherited from their placoderm ancestors. In sum, lungs came first: swim bladders evolved from lungs, not vice versa.
What is true of Crossopterygian fishes?
Included species with labyrinthodont teeth.retained the primitive ventral lung, Paired fins evolved into legs,Hinged braincase, Internal nares.
"Pineal" eye.
One of the following characters does not point to sarcopterygians as the ancestors of tetrapods. Which one? Why not?
Paired fins

All vertebrates above the grade of placoderms have paired appendages, i.e., the character is not derived.
On this notecard are listed all the possible answers to this question: Which of the following statements regarding lungs and air bladders is not true?
-Air bladders of extant freshwater holostean fishes, Lepidosteus (gar pike) and Amia (bowfin) have a folded inner surface and are capable of some gas exchange.
-In advanced actinopterygians, the bladder is closed and contains specialized areas for gas production and resorption.
-Polypterus, the so-called "bichir" of central Africa, has paired, ventral lungs and is probably representative of the primitive state that was antecedent to all other lung and bladder types.
-Primitively, the air bladder of actinopterygians is connected to the pharynx by a pneumatic duct, a condition which allows the animal to and gulp or discharge air, thereby adjusting its density.
-The first fishes had a dorsal bladder unconnected to the gut. In Devonian times, this structure migrated ventrally and became connected to the gut making possible the evolution of the first lungs.
(The last one) The first fishes had a dorsal bladder unconnected to the gut. In Devonian times, this structure migrated ventrally and became connected to the gut making possible the evolution of the first lungs
The evolution of the amniote egg freed early reptiles from the necessity of reproducing in water. Amniote eggs contain four extraembryonic membranes. Match each of the membranes to the corresponding function in the list below.
a. Allantois 1. encloses the embryo's food supply.
b. Amnion 2. is a repository for dissolved embryonic wastes.
c. Chorioallantoic (formed from parts of the chorion and the allantois) 3. serves as an embryonic lung.
d. Chorion 4. surrounds the amnion and the allantois.
e. Yolk sac 5. surrounds the embryo with a "bag of waters."
a-2 ; b-5; c-3 ; d-4 ; e-1
Fick's Law holds that the rate at which gas diffuses across a membrane...
is proportional to the difference in gas concentration on either side of the membrane.
In which of the following groups goes the oxygen-bearing medium pass unidirectionally over the gas exchange surfaces?
Birds; In all other tetrapods, the respiratory system dead-ends in the lungs, and breathing is tidal.
Counter-current systems are commonly used by vertebrates and other animals to maximize the exchange of substances across membranes, conserve heat, etc. With regard to heat conservation, give three examples.
1. Conservation of heat in the swimming muscles of so-called "hot fish."; 2. conservation of core temperature by preventing loss of heat throught the legs in wading birds; 3. conservation of heat in the thorax (thereby warming the flight muscles) in bees and certain moths.
With regard to the concentration of oxygen, blood flow through the lamellae of fish gills is counter-current to the flow of water over the lamellae. What is the functional significance of this arrangement
Maximizes the transfer of oxygen from water to blood vessels in the lamellae.
Compare the flow of blood and the acquisition of oxygen in fish and insects.
Vertberates have closed circulatory systems, whereby deoxygenated blood is pumped forward by the ventral heart to the gills, where it is oxygenated. Thereafter, the blood flows to the tissues, where oxygen is exchaged for CO2. Finally, the blood re-enters the heart. In insects, the circulatory system is open. The colorless blood accumulates in a pericardial sinus, enters the dorsal heart and is then pumped forward by the dorsal aorta to various sinuses. Here the internal organs are directly bathed in the blood. Gas exchange is independent of circulation. Oxygen enters the animal through spiracles that connect directly to the external environment and is brought to the tissues via a series of branching trachea.
Discuss the transport of CO2 by mammalian erythrocytes.
CO2 is transported by red blood cells as bicarbonate ions, the formation of which is accelerated by carbonic anhydrase. In the tissues (high PPCO2), carbon dioxide diffuses into RBCs where it combines with water to form carbonic acid, H2CO3, which then dissociates into H+ and bicarbonate ion, HCO3-. In the lungs (low PPCO2), the process is reversed and carbon dioxide diffuses out of RBCs. The key to all of this are the reversible reactions
CO2 + H2O XH2CO3 X H+ + HCO3-

To a much lesser degree, CO2 is also transported in combination with de-oxygenated hemoglobin as carboxyhemoglobin.
Red blood cells are produced in the...
bone marrow
Erithropoietin is produced in the...
The three principal mammalian blood cell types are...
erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and thrombocytes (platelets).
Know figure 4 on lecture 10
a. scapula; b. humerus; c. radius; d. ulna; e. clavicle
CO2-sensitive chemoreceptors are located in the...
CO2 is transported principally...
as HCO3- by red blood cells.
The left-shifted oxygen dissociation curve of fetal hemoglobin reflects the fact that...
Fetal hemoglobin has less affinity for DPG than adult hemoglobin.
Among mammals, oxygen dissociation curves...
Are progressively shifted to the right as one goes from large species to small. This probably reflects the fact that per gram metabolic rates increase with decreasing body size.
Cheyne-Stokes respiration illustrates the general principle that...
introduction of time delays in feedback control loops can be destabilizing.
The maintainance of an internal environment consistent with proper physiological function is called...
The brine shrimp, Artemia is able to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions ranging from dilute sea water to the hypersaline conditions of the Great Salt Lake. It does so by being...
Both an osmoconformer and an osmoregulator, depending on environmental conditions.
In addition to exchanging CO2 for oxygen, the gills of freshwater fish exchange...
NH4+ for Na+.
Nitrogenous wastes, ammonia, urea and uric acid, are the breakdown products of metabolizing proteins and nucleic acids. Energetically, the cheapest to manufacture is ammonia, and most bony fish lose this compound in the form of NH4+. By way of contrast, terrestrial animals principally excrete urea or uric acid, even though these compounds are more expensive to manufacture. The reason for this is that...
urea and uric acid are less toxic and can be concentrated to a greater extent before elimination thereby conserving water.
The vertebrate kidney is composed of 1.__________. The proximal 2._______ filters the blood. The resulting filtrate, which lacks cells and large molecules, is concentrated in the distal 3.__________
3.renal tubules
Alligator populations manifest continuing mortality through life. A likely explanation is...
Which factors contribute to age-specific variation in fertility in female mammals?
Both delayed onset of reproduction and senescence
Equation 2
Equation 3
The demographic tranisition requires that
fertility goes down and mortality goes down
Name some stuff about the book: The Population Bomb, published in 1968
predicted mass starvation in the US in the 1970's and 1980's. Also, Paul Ehrlich advocated cutting off food aid to countries unwilling or unable to reduce their birth rates.
An optimal life history maximizes...
mx+px(vx+1/v0) for each age class AND
vx/v0 for each age class.
The constant, K, in the logistic equation is
carrying capacity of the environment (equilibrial density of the population).
Gause's yeast cultures ceased growing because
accumulating ethanol (waste product of fermentation) inhibits cell reproduction.
In Gause's competition experiments between different species of Paramecium, the winning species either 1._________or 2.___________
1.produced more waste products
2.or was less sensitive to waste products in the medium
Prior to mass immunization, childhood infections such as mumps, measles and rubella manifested
Continuing oscillations
Populations manifesting chaotic dynamics also manifest...
BOTH sensitivity to initial conditions AND
long term distribution of system states that are independent of the initial conditions
In terrestrial ecosystems, the nutrients on the soil surface derive from...
decomposing litter from dominant plants
In which of the following types of animals would you expect to find dominating hoops of Henle?
Gerbils of the Mongolian Desert
Tyrannasaurus survivorship curves are...
between type I and II
The earth's albedo is...
the fraction of incedent solar radiation reflected back into space before it warms the earth
Redwood story by Huxman...
longer leaves and greater height trap leaf water and hog all the sunlight for photosynthesis
What is the source-sink concept?
water enters source tubes (w/greater sucrose concentration) by osmosis, which causes greater pressure potential at the source, so that the sap moves by bulk flow to the sink. Sucrose is unloaded at the sink, maintaning the solute and water potential gradients.
Explain translocation of materials in the phloem.
water enters source tubes (w/greater sucrose concentration) by osmosis, which causes greater pressure potential at the source, so that the sap moves by bulk flow to the sink. Sucrose is unloaded at the sink, maintaning the solute and water potential gradients.
Explain the pressure-flow model of phloem transport
water enters source tubes (w/greater sucrose concentration) by osmosis, which causes greater pressure potential at the source, so that the sap moves by bulk flow to the sink. Sucrose is unloaded at the sink, maintaning the solute and water potential gradients.
Describe the process of the aquisition of nutrients...
Need CO2 from air, Hydrogen from water, O2 produced in photosynthesis, and N2 enters through bacteria, which realeases it to air. Also needs minerals derived from soil solution (water and soil).
What is a nutrient?
-constitutes of organic material
-osmotic potential or contribute to enzyme store/function
-structural factors in methalloproteins
Factors affects nutrient availability?
Both the Sources of nutrients AND Direct and indirect controls over sources
Where are nutrients located, and where do most come from in terrestrial ecosystems?
98% Mineral Nutrients in soil, 2% from soil colloids, and .2% dissolved in the soil water
What is the big deal about the observation that there is high nutrient availability in mineral and organic forms compared to the rather low nutrient concentration in the soil solution?
– Nutrients freed by weathering and decomposition are collected and protected
from leaching
– Concentration in soil solution remains low and constant
What environments would have low nutrient avaialbility and why?
• Sandy soils – low clay content and thus inadequate
exchange capacity
• High rainfall – excessive leaching of nutrients
• Low rainfall – inadequate soil moisture for organic
matter decomposition
• Cold soils – low decomposition; low root respiration
and thus low nutrient uptake
• Waterlogged soils – inadequate oxygen for root
respiration and decomposition
What is the difference between mass flow and diffusion?
Mass flow in soils is a rapid process, whereas diffusion is
only measured in mm per day in soils
• Where mass flow is insufficient to satisfy plant demand
What kinds of ways have plants evolved for dealing with low nutrient availability (e.g., symbiosys, etc.)
– Root absorption of inorganic ions ammonium and nitrate
– Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen
– Mycorrhizal associations
– Carnivory
How do plants respond in an integrated manner to changes in nutrient availability? (recall the flow chart I showed)
Slows down process to conserve energy
How do differences in plant strategies interact with nutrient availability? (especially nutrient return to the soil)
-complexity of nutrient cycling which is correlated with the diversity of a dominant plant species
Why are certain species often found together in assemblages?
-Clements says its because species are locked together by interactions; Shreve gave criticisms of this hypothesis
-Gleason said these were chance assemblies
-Individualistic hypothesis (important): Initial events dictate the pattern of
replacement of species through time following a disturbance