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141 Cards in this Set

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Gamtetes
Have haploid number of chromosomes
meiosis is
produces four haploid cells
for cell division to take place in normal
must be space available, signals from other cells must be properly communicated, the dividing cells must be attached
___limits the number of times a cell divides
telomeres
Proper sequence for mitosis
prophase
metaphase
anapahse
telophases
what which is not considered a phase of mitosis
interphase
An example of discontinuous variation
blood type
Phases of the cell cycle
resting
protein syntheses
DNA Replication
Premitosis
mitosis
Phases of Meiosis
Prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, telophase 1
prophase 2, metahpase 2, anaphase 2, telophase 2, prophase 2, telophase 2
how many cells need to be transformed from normal cells for cancer to develope
one
a niche is
a role an organisms holds in an ecosystem
a habitat is
where species live
provides shelter
provides food
Which is an adaptation against predation
thorns
camouflage
mimicry
nitrification
converts ammonia into nitrates
the dust bowl of the 1930s was the result of destruction of
prairie
ozone is
O3
An example of a coastal ecosystem
Estuary
Difference between psudoextinction and true extinction
True extinction is when there are no related species left, or the lineage is completely gone, like the DODO bird. Pseudoextinction is when one particular species is gone but other related species exist, like the mammoth. The mammoth may no longer exist, elephants still do, therefore some its genes still exist and are passed on.
What is the difference between bioremediation and bio degradation?
Bio remediation is when humans do anything, like recycle, in order to help clean up the environment. Bio degradation is when something naturally breaks down, degrades like paper without the help of humans
a biosphere is
earth
prokaryotic cells have
plasmids
eukaryotic cells have
organelles
cytoplasm
nucleus
a class is a division of
phylum
a family is a division of
order
a specie is a division of
genera
the simplest of the eukaryotes are
protistans
mycote are
fungi
all but which of the following are bryophytes
lycophytes
Three domains
archaea, eubacteria, euckarya
Characteristics of mammals
Have fur/hair, warm-blooded, feeds offspring milk
DNA replication
is when cell copy their DNA
Adenine is compliments with __ in DNA structure
Thymine
Guanine is complimented with __ in DNA structure
Cytosine
DNA Ligase
joins together fragments of DNA
Transcription is the process of
conversion of DNA to RNA
The enzyme that unzips the double helix of DNA at the beginning of Transcription
RNA polymerase
An RNA molecule is
single stranded
mRNA is
the template of translation
A human karyotype showing 22 pairs of autosomes and two X chromosomes would be
a normal female
What is a codon
A codon is a set of three nucleotides, Amino Acid chains
DNA replication
is when cell copy their DNA
Adenine is compliments with __ in DNA structure
Thymine
Guanine is complimented with __ in DNA structure
Cytosine
DNA Ligase
joins together fragments of DNA
Transcription is the process of
conversion of DNA to RNA
The enzyme that unzips the double helix of DNA at the beginning of Transcription
RNA polymerase
An RNA molecule is
single stranded
mRNA is
the template of translation
A human karyotype showing 22 pairs of autosomes and two X chromosomes would be
a normal female
What is a codon
A codon is a set of three successive nucleotides, Amino Acid chains
Which specialized plant tissue transports nutrients down the plant?
Phloem
Most of the water moving into a leaf is lost through
evaporation
of the following the greatest amount of nutrient absorption takes place in the
small intestine
What structure manufactures bile but does not store it?
Liver
What stimulates the gallbladder to contract
a fatt meal
micro-nutrients include
minerals
what is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
Saturated fats have single bonds in their tails, in other words their carbon chains are fully saturated with hydrogen atom and are solid at room temperature, break down slower, and are used for cell membrane repair. Unsaturated fats are double bonds in tail, liquid at room temperature, helps fluidity of cell membranes
phytoremediation
the use of plants to take up and concentrate or degrade environmental contaminants
Two threats to Agriculture
Deprivation of nutrients from soil as a result of crops draining the nutrients and industrialization which uses up land that could have been used for agriculture but now are unusable
What is the structure located at the junction of the small and large intestines
cecum
If a helix of DNA is cut for "blunt ends"
the cut would be in one place on side of the DNA
The complete genetic material of a entire organism is
Genome
The solvent, cohesive and temperature stabilization properties of water are due to tis
hydrogen bonds
Cholesterol can be remodeled into
bile salts
sex hormones
steroids
Amino acids are the building blocks for
protein
makes their own food
autotrophs
In the light reaction of photosynthesis
water molecules are split
chlorophyll
is where photosynthesis takes place
in glycolisis, how many ATP are produces?
4
Chemical reaction of photosynthesis
6CO2+6H2O6  (light) C6H12O6+6O2
A species is composed of
populations that have the potential to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
the person credited with being the co discoverer of the theory of natural selection was
Alfred Wallace
What is true of evolution
consist of two major hypothesis
takes place with in species
takes place between species
new alleles arise by
mutation
Mules are sterile because
they have an odd number of chromosomes
who demonstrated the possibility of producing organic compounds from gases and water if the mixture is bombarded with a continuous spark discharge?
Miller
Which statement is not true?

natural populations may be in genetic equilibrium
migration leads to genetic variation
nonrandom mating may result in changes in gene frequency
the Hardy-Weinberg law applies to large, stable populations
Natural populations may be in genetic equilibrium
True or False: Individuals can have allele frequencies
false
when a population goes through a bottleneck
genetic drift is likely to occur
what is the definition of genetic drift?
Abrupt change in allele frequencies due to chance alone
What is true about Biology?
It is the scientific study of living systems
What is true of about Science
It's systematized knowledge
it's defined by its methods
it involves the testing and formation of ideas
A hypothesis is
a tentative explanation of events of how something works
reasoning from a specific instance to general principles, which are sometimes unreliable is considered
induction
what is true of theories?
explain observations
guide scientific research
inspire future hypothesis and testing
when an article is based on facts it is considered to be
objective
the smallest unit of life that can survive and reproduce on its own is
a cell
All of the coyotes (Canis Latrans) living in the Central Valley constitute an
population
when cells increase in number, size, or volume, this is called
growth
Emergent "Properties of Living Systems"
Organization, Metabolism, Selective Response, genetic material
Exocrine glands secrete
enzymes
sweat
milk
cardiac muscle cells are
both involuntary and striated
the brain and spinal cord are covered by the protective
meniges
the portion of the nerve that does not have a myelin sheat is referred to as
gray matter
optical receptors are used for
sight
alcohol acts as a
depressant
____stimulates a receptor for a neurotransmitter
agonist
What gland secretes hormones that affect other endocrine glands?
Pituitary
the pituitary gland controeld by the
hypothalmus
What bridges the gap between a neuron sending a message and the neuron receiving it?
Neurotransmitter
the basic unit of contraction in a skeletal muscle is the
myofibril
the mineral stored in greatest quantity in bones is
calcium
the arrival of an action potential causes the release of __ by the sarcoplasmic reticulum
calcium
In the pulmonary circuit blood is..
oxygen poor and pumped via the right ventricle
blood in arteries...
always travels away from the heart
the pulmonary artery carries blood away from the
right ventricle
the aorta leaves the ....
left atrium
blood typing is based on
antigens on red blood cells
A person with type O blood will have___antibodies
anti-a and anti-b
a pathogen is
infectious
the immune system includes
lymphocytes
a vector is
a disease carrier
small circular molecules of DNA in Bacteria are called
plasmids
DNA can acquired by bacteria through
horizontal gene transfer
vertical gene transfer
transformation
antibiotic resistance is
an evolutionary process
can be transferred between prokaryotic species
can be passed within a prokaryotic species
which of these sexually transmitted disease is caused by bacteria?
a)gonorrhea
b)HIV
c)genital herpes
d)none of the above
a)gonorrhea
A form of immunity obtained by an attack of an infectious disease?
Natural active
when the body's immune system turns against it's own cell, the disorder is
an autoimmune disease
what nucleic acid is in the genome of HIV
RNA
the final site of drug metabolism is
kidney
the secondary site of drug metabolism is
neuron
the primary site of drug metabolism is
liver
which structure, or structures, carries urine from the bladder to outside the body?
urethra
the storage are for urine before it is eliminated from the body is the
bladder
the process during which potassium and hydrogen ions and some toxic substances are put into the urine by active transport is called
secretion
opening of peripheral blood vessels is part of __________
the initial response to hot temperature
responses to cold temperature include___
shivering
increased respiration
shunting of the blood to the core regions of the body
the functional unit the kidney is____
nephron
Response to low temperature that increases the chance for survival include___
shivering
production of brown fat
vasoconstruction
which hormone stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristic
testosterone
what hormone stimulates ovulation in the female?
luteinizing hormone (LH)
a single-layered, hollow ball of cells is
blastula
isogamy, means male and female____
haploid cells look different identical
Courtship, nesting, and mating are examples of ________ behavior
instinct
an innate behavior is______
inheritable
war, illness, natural disaster; are examples of _________
positive population check
behavior that enhances the fitness of another member of the same species at the expense of the helpful individual is_____
altruism
how is a growth rate calculated?
Birth - Death = Growth
When behavior is adjusted for environmental conditions, it is_______
learned
Negative check is _______
checks that occur prior to birth; i.e. abortion, miscarriage
preventative check ______
checks that occur prior to fertilization; i.e. birth control, condoms