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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define symbiosis
close relationship between 2 species in which atleast 1 benefits
Define Nucleolus
small region in nucleus made up of RNA and proteins
Define chromosome
things in nucleus that contains DNA
define mitochondria
changes chemical energy in foods into food for cell
define ribosomes
structures in which proteins are made
Define endoplasmic reticulum
network or channels in cell, transport materials in cell
Define smooth ER
Rough ER
smooth- doesnt have ribosomes
rough- has ribosomes
Define Golgi Aparatus
organelle that packages ane distributes molecules thats used in another part of cell
Define lysosomes
"clean up crew"
strusctures that contain powerful digesting chemicals that digests certain materials
Define Vacuoles
Storage place: water, waste, food
Define diffusion
The process by which molecules of a substance move from areas of higher concentration to areas or lower ones
Define Osmosis
Diffusion of water across a cell
Define isotonic
having the same concentration of solutes
Define cyclosis
streaming rotary motion or protoplasm in certain cells
Define plasmolysis
contraction of protoplasm away from cell wall of plant or bacteria cell
Define Hypotonic
having least osmotic pressure out of 2 fluids
Define Hypertonic
Having the greater osmotic pressure out of 2 fluids
What was the earth like 4 billion years ago?
No atmosphere or water, 1 solid continent, volcanic activity, meteros which helped bring gases to start early atmosphere
How has the earth's climate changed?
before it was hot, warm and climate didnt vary, it had little or no polar ice, Today climate varies and polar ice
How have life forms on the planet changed over the past 4 billion years?
They became more complex in functions & structure. First trues cells werent aerobic, Due to nitrogen and volcanic activity, oxygen came along making aerobic cells causing eukaryotes to start being made
The larger a cell is the -- the surface to volume ratio becomes
SMALLER. If cell is too large, things wouldnt diffuse completely
2 types of passive transport
Osmosis and diffusion
True or false :
Facilitated diffusion requiers energy
Define facilitated diffusion
diffusion or materials across a cell membrane using molecules
Define active transport
energy requiring process that eneables a material to move across a cell membrane against concentration difference
Define endocytosis
the process of taking into cell by membrane folding
Define Phagocytosis
large particles taken in to cell by endocytosis. The cytoplasm extends to engulf the particle
Define Pinocytosis
liquid particles taken into cell by pockets in membrane to surround it
Define exocytosis
particles leaving cell with help of membrane fusing out content
cork cells
Define Genetic code
program of the cell
What did Frederick Griffith do?
infected rats with rough strain and smooth strain and figured out transformation
Describe transformation
genetic material is absorbed into live cell and used
the works of McCarty and MacLeod and Avery
continued griffiths exper. finding transforming factor and found out DNA was transforming factor
Define DNA
nucleic acid that stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation or an organism to the next
works of hershey and chase
injected bacteria with bacteriophages. Wanted to find out if protein coat or DNA entered bacterium. used sulfer and phosphorus.if phosphorous found, DNA injected in
Define bacteriophages
Viruses that infect bacteria, composed of DNA core and protein coat
WHat makes up a nucleotide?
Phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose), nitrogen base
works of crick and watson
used franklins info and built structure of DNA
Define replication
DNA duplicating itself before cell division
Describe Transcription
process which a molecule of DNA is copied into a complementary strand of RNA
Define codon
3 letter code word, specifies particular amino acid
Define translation
decoding of mRNA to form polypeptide chain (protein)
The 3 nucleotides on the tRNA pair with. .
the ones one the mRNA
tRNA nucleotides called?
mRNA nucleotides called?
tRNA- antiocodon
mRNA - codon
Define Cancer
uncontrolled cell growth
Define mitosis
process by which the nucleus of cell is divided into 2 nuclei, identical
Define cytokinesis
process by which cytoplasm divides
Define cell cycle
beginning of one mitosis to the beginnning of the next
Describe cell cycle
Cell growth (G1) DNA replication (S) Preparation for mitosis (G2), Mitosis, Cytokinesis
Describe prophase
longest phase, chromatin condensesm chromosomes visible, nucleolus disappears. Also centrioles migrate, spindle created
Describe metaphase
shortest phase, chromosomes line up across center of cell
Describe Anaphase
chromosomes split into opposite ends
chromosomes uncoil, nucleolus becomes visible
cell divides