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28 Cards in this Set

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Gene
Unit of instruction for a protein (comes form proteins)
Allele
Different molecular forms of a gene
Diploid
Having 2 homologous chromosomes

1 gene = 1 trait = 1 protein
Gamenes (RL, Rl, rl) are haploid
Organisms are diploid (Ex: RrLl)
Haploid
Having one of each chromosome
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a gene
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a gene
Dominant (or "normal")
Allele form that masks other alleles (uppercase letters)
Recessive
Allele form that can be masked (lowercase letters)
Genotype
Actual compliment of alleles present
Ex: RR = homozygous, Rr = heterozygous, rr = homozygous
Phenotype
Outward expression of the genotype
Ex: Color, size, etc
The Mendelian Principle of Segregation
"Genotypes get one of each chromosome"
Sex-linked traits (passed from mother to son)
Carry info on gender determination, i.e., homomones!

XX = females
XY = males
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
22 are autosomal
1 pair is sex-linked
Autosomal traits
Carry same traits on males and females; no information about gender
Incomplete dominance
Heterozygous form has an immediate phenotype.

Each genotype exhibits a different phenotype (RR = red, Rr = pink, rr = white)
Codominance
All alleles are equally expressed.

Ex: Human blood type
Evolution
Genetic change in a population over time
Population
A group of individuals of the same species that occupy a given area (shared gene pool)
Darwin's First Conclusion
Obs. 1: Potential growth of natural populations
Obs. 2: Natural populations are relatively consistent in size
Concl. 1: More organisms are born than actually survive and reproduce
Darwin's Second Conclusion
Obs. 3: Individuals of a population vary in fitness
Concl. 2: Fitness determines survival resulting in natural selection
Darwin's Third Conclusion
Obs. 4: Variation is heritable
Concl. 3: Populations change over time in their heritable make -up (genetics)
Mutation
Rare, not goal-oriented, cumulative
Genetic drift
Random changes in allele frequencies, genetic bottle necks, and founder effect
Monomer 1 = Carbohydrates
Polymer 1 = simple sugars
Monomer 2 = Lipids
Polymer 2 = Fatty acids
Monomer 3 = Proteins
Polymer 3 = Amino acids
Monomer 4 = Nucleic acids
Polymer 4 = Nucleotides