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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cytology
the study of cells
cell theory
-1849
-all organisms are composed of one or more cells
-the cell is the basic unit of organization for all organisms
- cells arise from preexisting cells
-cells are surrounded by a membrane
-cells contain DNA
anatomy is hierarchical
(biggest to smallest)
-organism
-organ system
-organ
-tissue
-cell
-organelle
-macromolecules
macromolecules
-lipids
-proteins
-carbohydrates
-nucleic acids
in plasma membrane
-lipids
-receptor proteins
-enzymes
- ion channels
-cell-identity markers
-microvilli
-cilia
-flagella
lipids
-in plasma membrane
-phospholipids
receptor proteins
receives messages
enzymes
catalyze
ion channels
cell "gates"
cell- identity markers
glycocalyx (without these body would start attacking itself)
microvilli
-digestive system (intestines and tongue)
cilia
-respiratory system
flagella
mobile cells
nucleus
-double membrane with pores
-holds the DNA
cell interior
-nulceus
-endoplasmic reticulum
-Smooth & rough
-ribosomes
-golgi apparatus
-lysosomes
-mitochondria
-cytoskelton
Endoplasmic reticulum
ROUGH ER
-branches of from nucleus membrane
-surface has ribosomes
-makes phospholipids
endoplasmic reticulum
SMOOTH ER
-branches out from nuclear membrane/ and or rough ER
-surface lacks ribosomes
-makes other lipids. some hormones
-detoxifies toxins, ex alcohol
ribosomes
-embedded in rough ER but also free flowing in cytosol
-assembles amino acids into proteins
golgi appararus
-the "post office"
-receives proteins from rough ER
- sorts, may cut/splice, may add carbohydrates to the structure
-packages finished proteins then ships them out
-make lysosomes
lysosomes
-digest all macromolecules types releasing products(ie. subunits or monomers)
-autophagy, "self eating"
-autolysis, "self breakdown"
mitochondria
-double membrane
-"powerhouse" of cell
-aerobic cellular respiration
-make ATP
-energy currency of cell
-anaerobic cellular respiration
cytoskeleton
-network of fiber-like proteins in cytoplasm
-structural and mechanical support
- cell shape
-movement of organelles
- cell motility
chromosomes
highly coiled DNA containing many genes
chromatid
-1 of 2 identical copies of DNA in a chromosome (the "leg")
centromere
-point of attachment for duplicated (sister) chromatids
Mitosis
-somatic cells (except gametes)
-need for: growth and repair
-interphase
-prophase
-metaphase
-anaphase
-telophase
interphase
-longest phase
-G1 / S / G2
G1: 1 chromatid per chromosome (one mother one father)
S: (synthesis) DNA replication
G2: 2 chromatids per chromosome
prophase
-nulcear membrane disintegrates
-chromosomes codense forming recognizable shape
-spindles form (move genetic material)
metaphase
-chromosomes line up on metaphase plate (equator), centromeres on spindle fibers
anaphase
-spindle fibers contract
-pull sister chromatids apart
-chromatids move to opposite sides of cell
telophase
-spindle fibers disappear
-nulcear membrane re-forms
-chromosoes de-condense
-ctyokinesis
cytokinesis
cleavage forms splitting cell into 2 identical daughter cells
genetics
study of heredity resulting from genes, basis of inheritance
gene
nucleotide sequence in DNA that codes for a trait
gregor mendel
-studied pea plants
-wondered if you could choose characteristics of new plant by selecting parent plants
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
phenotype
physical expression of the genotype
alleles
variations of the same gene
-homozygous: identical alleles
-dominant: AA
- recessive: aa
-heterozygous: dissimilar alleles
- Aa
punnett squares
a method used to predict the genotypes and phenotypes of off spring
Mendel's Laws of Genetics
-Alleles account for variation in inherited traits
-for each trait, an organism inherits 2 alleles for same gene, one for each parent
-dominant allele determines phenotype
incomplete dominance
a heterozygote of a trait is an intermediate between homozygous dominant trait and homozygous recessive trait
Co-Dominance
-2 or more dominant alleles, individual may express both phenotypes
- type O= OO
- type A= AA or AO
- type B= BB or BO
- type AB= AB
Polygenic inheritance
-addictive effects of genes (ex skin color), several genes cause 1 phenotype
-up to 3 genes contribute to skin pigment
epistasis
one gene modifies the effect of another gene (ex. albinoism)
osmosis
net diffusion of water across a membrane
diffusion
movement of solutes
osmotic flow
-the movement of water driven by osmosis
-the greater the initial difference the stronger the flow
osmotic pressure
an indication of the force with which pure water moves into that solution
osmolarity
-the total solute concentration in an aqueous solution
-also called osmotic concentration
-refers to the solute concentration of the solution
tonicity
-how the solution affects a cell
-has
3 effects:
-isotonic
- hypotonic
- hypertonic
isotonic
a solution that does not cause an asmotic flow of water into or out of a cell
hypotonic
solution is one that causes osmotic water flow into the cell
hypertonic
as water moves out of the cell shrivels and dehydrates
locus
a genes position on a chromosome
simple inheritance
most common form of interaction among autosomal genes
alleles
various forms of a given gene
homozygous
two chromosomes of a homologous pair carry the same allele of a particular gene
heterozygous
two different alleles for the same gene
simple inheritance
-most common form of interaction among autosomal genes
-strict dominance is one type
strict dominance
any dominant allele will be expressed in the phenotype, regardless of any conflicting instructions carried by the other allele
dominant alleles
represented by capital letters
recessive alleles
represented by lowercase letters
polygenic inheritance
resulting phenotype depends on not only on the nature of the alleles but how those alleles interact
-you cannot predict outcome using Punnett square