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32 Cards in this Set

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taxonomy
branch of biology that deals with the classification and naming of living things
classification system
used in modern biology and allows biologists to identify an organism and place it in the correct group with related organisms
two major groups that living things are separated into
the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom
aristotle and theophrastus
A-grouped animals according to the kind of environment in which they lived
T-grouped plants according to stem strucutre
-together they classified more than 500 kinds of plants and 500 kinds of animals
john ray
identified and classified more than 18,000 different types of plants-also classified members of several different animal groups-first used term species
species
a group of organisms that are strucutally similar and pass these similarities on to their offspring-are able to interbreed
Classification categories
1. Kingdoms-largest
2. Phylum
3. Class
4. Order
5. Family
6. Genus (last name)
7. Species-smallest (first name)
King Phylum Cuts Onions For Great Salad
carolus linnaeus
considred the founder of modern taxonomy
-established methods for classifying and naming organisms that are used today
nomenclature
system for naming things
binomial nomenclature
two-word system of identifying an organism
-developed by carolus linnaeus
-latin names
-two names are:
1) Genus (capital letter) Homo
2) Species (lower case letter) sapiens
what information about an organism do modern taxonomists use when they classify? what does this system allow for?
structural, biochemical, embryological, behavioral, and fossil-allows for evidence of evolution
phylogeny
evolutionary history of a species or a group of organisms
-phylogenetic tree indicates when related groups of organisms have evolved from common ancestors
Five kingdoms
monera, protista, fungi, plantae, and animalia
members of monera
bacteria, blue-green algae
members of protista and exmaples
*protozoa (nutrition=animal-like):
paramecium, ameba
*algae (nutrition=plant-like):
spirogyra
members of fungi and exmaples
true fungi:
molds, yeast, mushrooms, rusts, and smuts
members of plantae and examples
*Bryophytes:
mosses
*Tracheophytes:
Ferns, seed plants: maple tree, pine tee, corn
bryophyte
lack vascular tissue; no true roots, stems, or leaves
tracheophytes
have vascular tissue-true roots, stems and leaves
members of animalia and examples
*Coelenterates:
hydra, jellyfish
*Annelids:
earthworm, sandworm
*Mollusks/:
clam, snail
*Arthropods:
grasshopper, lobster, spider
*Chordates:
shark, frog, human
coelenterates
hollow-body-2 cells layers
annelids
segmented body walls
mollusks
1 or 2 part shell
arthropods
jointed appendages, exoskeleton
chordates
dorsal nerve cord
characteristics of Monera
-prokaryotic
-no organized nucleus w/ nuclear membrane
-cell walls
-no photosynthesis excpet blue-green algae
protista characteristics
-mostly unicellular
-eukaryotic-have membrane-bound nucleus
-same are animal like and some are plantlike
fungi characteristics
-live as parasites or decomposers
-most are multicellular
-eukaryotic
-no chloropyll and cannot synthesize food
-enzymes digest food outside the organism
plantae characteristics
-cell walls
-true tissue and organ organization
-nearly all are photosynthetic
-contain chlorophyll
-multicellular
animalia
-multicellular organisms
-obtain food from environment and ingest it
-move on their own
-specialized sensory systems, brain, nerve-muscle systems
-most common=sexual reproduction
-vertebrates and invertebrates
autotrophs
make their own food
heterotrophs
organisms that must obtain their food from the environment