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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How is pH used to determine the strength of acids and bases?
pH measures tha hydrogen ion concentration and that tells the degree of acidity or basicity
What is the difference between a weak and a strong acid?
Weak acids slightly dissociate in water and strong acids highky dissociate in water
Name the 6 basic nutrient groups.
water, minerals, vitamins, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates
What is meant by digestion?
the breakdown of food into small enough peices to be passed through intestinal wall to be used by body
Why are minerals necessary for the body?
they aid in many functions of the body such as thyroid function-iodine, rbc production-iron
Why are vitamins necessary for the body?
they help enzymes work and they help in important functions of the body and structure such as bone formation
What are two purposes of food?
fill energy needs and provide raw materials.
Describe the digestion and metabolism of proteins.
stomach acids and enzymes break peptide linnkages that hold protein together and break the proteins into amino acids
Describe the digestion and metabolism of lipids.
lipids are broken down by enzymes and bile salts. they breakdown fats into smaller components so they can travel through intestinal wall and into bloodstream.
Describe the digestion and matabolism of carbohydrates
stomach acid and ezymes convert carbs into monosaccharides. carbs are polysaccharides joined by acetal linkages, so the stomach acids and ezymes break these linkages and make monosaccharides
What is the basis of chemical transport in the body?
chemical transport involves nutrients, chemicals, 02, c02, being moved through the body either by hydrogen bonding, suspension, or hemoglobin transport
How are oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in the body?
o2 attaches to the heme portion of the hemoglobin and goes to the cells. the co2 attaches to the heme and then is exhaled or used as a buffer
How do kidneys clean the blood?
blood goes through kidneys and filters the waster in the blood and is eliminated by urine.
What is meant by metabolism?
The sum total of all the chemical reactions in teh body that are involved in the maintenance of the dynamic state of the cell
What are two effects of free radical damage?
damaged blood vessels, heart disease
Why is glycogen called a storage carbohydrate?
Because it is stored for future use, as energy for muscles. When glucose levels drop, glycogen breaks down to provide glucose.
How do buffer systems work in the body?
Buffer resists attemps to change pH upon addition of small amounts of hydrogen or hydroxyl ions
What are weak and strong electrolytes?
Weak electrolytes slightly dissociate in solution. Strong electrolytes highly dissociate in solution.
Brifely discuss prion based disease.
prion disease occurs when the shape becomes misfolded. these have a chain reaction and make more altered cells. They eat away at the brain until death.
What are the effects of antioxidants in the body?
antioxidants produce electrons that are needed to neutralize free radicals
What is the function of blood?
To transport oxygen from lungs to tissues, co2 from tissues to lungs, nutrients from digestive system to tissues.
What is meant by the tetravalent nature of carbon?
each carbon atom has four bonds
What is the function of hormones?
chemical messengers synthesized by glands that affect target tissues in the body where a response occurs.
How can enzymes be used in clinical diagnoses?
Certain enzymes are normally found exclusively in cells and are released into blood only when cells are damaged or destroyed
How do enzymes functions in the body?
Enzymes catalyze reactions in the body that would otherwise not happen as fast.
Which fats are healthier for the body?
unsaturated fats because they have double bonds which interfere with packins so they are less likely to clog arteries.
What is the function of cellulose in the body?
It provides dietary fiber and stimulates the contraction of the intestines and aids in the passage of food through digestive tract
What is the function of glucose in the body?
glucose is a sugar transported by the blood to body tissues to satisfy energy needs.
Name two functions of carbohydrates.
store chemical energy and provide energy through oxidation
What is meant by optical isomerism.
A spatial arrangement around a chiral carbon. they have configurations in space such that on structure is the mirror image of the other but is not identical to it.
What are the functions of HDL and LDL in the body?
HDL transports cholesterol to the liver. Allow excess cholesterol to pass through bloodstream without plaque buildup. LDL carries cholesterol throughout the body, transported to body tissues where needed
What is the purpose of bile salts?
bile salts are oxidation products of cholesterol. which disperse lipids into the small intestine into fine emulsions to help digestion
Define two types of proteins.
Fibrous proteins-primarily used for structural purposes(hair, nails) globular proteins- used for nonstructural puposes like transporting protein throughout the body
Describe a function of amino acid in the body.
structure- hair, nails, skin
Explain the effect of cholesterol in the body.
important raw materials needed for synthesis of hormones and bile acids and can cause build up in arteries