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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Asexual reproduction is associated with
sexual reproduction is associated with
what is differentiation?
when cells become specialized and lock up unused genes
what are three examples of undifferentiated, unlocked genes?
zygotes, stem cells, and germ cells
what is cell specialization?
when cells alter and express different genes to do different jobs
The bigger something is, the ______ the surface to volume ratio.
what is a typical size of an efficient cell?
1-100 [weird m]m
What are two outside signals that control cell division?
hormones and prostaglandin
what are two inside signals that controll cell division?
check points and cyclin
what does cancer originate from?
multiple mutations on DNA
what is a tumor or cancer cells telling other cells what to do known as?
what are three characteristics of cancer?
benign-containing, malignant, and metastasized
what are two treatments to cancer?
chemotherapy drugs and radiation [EMR, XRAY, GAMMA]
what is the 'fabric' of chromosomes?
What does DNA become wound up in?
histone proteins
What are the three parts of interphase?
G1 - working life, eating, growing
S - DNA synthesis [DNA copied]
G2 - proteins are made; cell's structure is broken down
What are thre four phases of mitosis?
prophase, anaphase, metaphase, telephase
Describe prophase. [4]
longest, nuclear envelope breaks down, chromosomes form, asters separate
Describe metaphase. [3]
chromosomes align in middle, spindle fibers attach, centromere splits
Describe anaphase. [1]
chromosomes are separated:
^ ^
v v
Describe telephase.[3]
no more spindlefibers, multinucleated cell, microfilaments push in to divide cell
What is cytokinesis?
the process of a plant making a cell wall in between 2 nuclei in one cell in order to divide
What does meiosis work in tandem with?
What is the purpose of meiosis?
to make sure every generation has the same number of chromosomes
What does meiosis produce?
haploid gametes, unidentical daughter cells, and gender
What are the two stages of cell division in meiosis?
meiosis I and meiosis II
What occurs in meiosis I?
homologous chromosomes pair, crossover, homologous chromosomes separate
What occurs in meiosis II?
it's very similar to mitosis [2 cells become 4 cells]
What are the two main stages of cell division in eukaryotes?
mitosis and cytokinesis
what is binary fission?
a bacteria's way of producing two identical 'daughter' cells by replicating DNA and dividing in 1/2
What is a chromatid?
a chromosomes "identical twin"
what is crossover?
an exchange of alleles between homologous chromosomes
what are polar bodies?
the other three cells created in meiosis for females that are not the egg