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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cells
basic units of all forms of life
cell theory
all living things are composed of cells
cells are the basic unit of living things
new cells are produced from existing cells
nucleus
contains the DNA, controls the cells activities
eukaryote
contain nuclei
prokaryote
lacking nuclei
organelles
organized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell, little organs
cytoplasm
material inside the cell membrane not including nucleus
nuclear envelope
layer of 2 membranes around nucleus
chromatin
grainular material on nucleus
chromosone
structures within nucleus containing DNA
nucleolus
where the assembly of ribosmomes begin
ribosome
particles of RNA + proteins foind in cytoplasm
endoplasmic reticulum
internal membrane system where lipids of membranes are assembled and some proteins are modified
golgi appartaus
modifes, sorts, packages proteins + other materials from the ER for storage
lysosomes
filled with enzymes used for digestion or breaking down lipids, carbs, and proteins
vacuole
saclike structures that store materials
mitochondrion
organelles that convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are easier for cells to use
chloroplast
capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy(photosynthesis)
cytoskeleton
network of protein filamemnts helps cell maintain shape and movement
centrioles
help organize cell division
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier around cells that regulate what enters and leaves the cell
cell wall
suppoting layer around membrane provides support and protection
lipid bilayer
2 layer sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes
concentration
mass of a solute in a given solution Mass/Volume
diffusion
molecules tend to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
equilibrium
when the concentration of a solute is equal
osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
isotonic
when the concentration of 2 solution is the same
hypertonic
when comparing 2 solutions- solution with greater concentration
hypotonic
when comparing 2 solutions- the solution with lesser concentration
facilitated diffusion
movement of specific molecules accross cell membranes through protein channels
active transport
requires energy, moves materila against concentration difference
endocytosis
process by which cell takes material by infolding of the cell membrane
phagocytosis
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surrounds large particles
pinocytosis
process by which a cell takes in liquid
exocytosis
process by which cell releases lage amounts of material
cell specialization
process in which different cells have different jobs
tissue
group of similar cells that perform a similar function
organ
group of tissues that work together to perform related function
organ system
group of organs that work togtehr to perform specific functions
choanocyte
specializd cells that use flagella to move through the sponge
osculum
large hole at top of sponge where water leaves the sponge
spicule
spike structure that makes up skeletons of harder sponges
archaeocyte
speacialized cell in sponge that makes spicules
internal fertilization
process in which eggs are fertilized inside sponges body
larva
immature state of an organism looks different than adult form
gemmule
group of archaeocytes, surrounded b spicules, produced by sponges
specialized cell
cell that is uniquely suited to perform a specific function
epithelial tissue
tissue that covers the surface of the body, and lines internal organs
connective tissue
tissue that hold in place and binds different parts of the body together
nervous tissue
tissue that recieves messages from the ody external and internal enviornment, analyzes it, and directs a response
muscle tissue
tissue that controls the internal movement in the body, as well as external
homeostasis
process b which organisms maintain a stable internal enviornment
feedback inhibition
process in which the product or result stops or limits the process