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54 Cards in this Set

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What is a gene?
-a string of codons (3 letter codes)
-specifies the entire amino acid sequence of a protein in DNA
-basic unit of heredity
-located on chromosomes on eukaryotes
What is a polypeptide?
a chain of amino acids linked by a peptide bond.
What is DNA and where is it found?
Genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents; double stranded with the bases adenine, lytosine, guanine, and thymine.
It is found in the nucleus.
In between cell divisions, ________ exist in long threads of __________.
Chromosomes, chromatin.
Who was Rosalind Franklin and what did she do?
She took pictures of DNA molecules, allowing Watson and Crick to propose the structure of the DNA.
DNA is a sequental series of joined _________.
nucleotides
What is a nucleotide and what is it comprised of?
-building blocks of nucleic acids
-5 carbon sugar
What is a chromosome?
A long DNA with millions of 3 letter codes.
What are the 4 bases of DNA and which of these are paired together?
-Adenine=Thymine
-Cytosine=-Guanine
-Guanine=-Cytosine
-Thymine=Adenine
Hydrogen bonds in nucleic acids are _______.
weak (so they can easily split apart)
Anti parallel orientation ____ to ____.
5 to 3
Nucleic acids are composed of:
Mononucleotides
The backbone of nucleic acids are:
ribose and phosphate
What is a semi conservative replication model?
A new strand is formed by pairing complementary bases with the old strand (DNA polymerase)
What is RNA?
Helper of DNA; single stranded; bases of adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uricil.
What are similarities of DNA and RNA?
-nucleic acids
-composed of nucleotides
-sugar-phosphate backbone
-4 diff. types of bases
DNA contains a ____ code.
triplet
Every three _____ represent one ____________.
bases, amino acid
What is a chain of amino acids called?
polypeptide chain
The total coding capacity is ____ codes.
64
Proteins are composed of _________.
amino acids
DNA cannot leave the _______.
nucleus.
What does mRNA do?
encodes genetic info from DNA and conveys it to ribosomes where info is translated into amino acid sequences.
Where does transcription take place?
in the nucleus
What are the steps in transcription?
-DNA is used as template for creation of RNA using enzyme RNA polymerase.
-RNA polymerase reads the nucleotides on the template strand from '3 to '5 direction and creates an mRNA
-The new mRNA molecule is complementary to the template strand.
Where does translation take place?
cytoplasm
What is rRNA?
together with proteins makes up ribosomes; most abundant type of RNA
What is tRNA?
functions as interpretor in translation. Each tRNA molecule carries a specific anticodon, picks up a specific amino acid, and conveys the amino acid to the appropriate codon on mRNA.
What is translation besides just protein synthesis?
Having proper amino acid sequence.
tRNA molecules bring ___________ to the ribosomes.
amino acid
What is genetic engineering?
the use of technology to alter the genomes of organisms.
What are two examples of transgenic bacteria?
insulin and human growth hormone
What is a genome?
all the genetic info of an individual or species.
What is a base sequence map?
shows sequences of all base pairs and is complete for humans.
What is a genetic map?
Shows locations of genes along each chromosome and is unfinished for humans.
Gregor Mendel is considered the father of genetics b/c of his discovery of:
the principles of genetics
What is the base triplet that is the complementary sequence to a codon of mRNA that the tRNA contain?
anticodons
The product of replication is:
DNA
What represents the arrangement of the backbone of the DNA molecule?
sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate
The enzyme associated with DNA replication is called:
DNA polymerase
A unit of 3 consecutive nucleotides in mRNA that codes for a single amino acid is called a:
codon
How many chromosomes are present in the human sperm?
23
Who discovered the double helix structure of DNA?
Watson and Crick
What three things are a nucleotides comprised of?
Base, sugar, phosphate
What kind of bonds are there between the complimentary bases in DNA?
Hydrogen Bonds
Does DNA have parallel or anti-parallel orientation?
Anti Parallel
If there are 4 amino acids in a polypeptide chain, how many bases were in the mRNA strand?
12
If there were 12 bases in a strand of mRNA, how many amino acids would be in the polypeptide strand it coded for?
4
Multicellular organisms start out as one cell called a:
zygote
How many hydrogen bonds do guanine and cytosine have?
3
How many hydrogen bonds do adenine and thymine have?
2
Each cell has up to ___ meters of DNA condensed into it.
3
What are histones?
Positively charged proteins that negatively charged DNA is highly condensed into to fit into a chromosome.
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by _____ the activation energy of the reaction.
lowering