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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Eukaryotic Cell
a cell whose primary complement of DNA is contained within a mebrane-lined nucleus (has other organelles also)
Prokaryotic Cell
a cell whose DNA is not located in the nucleus (either bacteria or archaea)
an organized structure in a cell that carries out specific cellular functions
membrane-lined compartment in a eukaryotic cell that contains the DNA
the area within the nucleus that produces ribosomal RNA
protein rich, jelly like fluid in which a cells organelles are immersed in
the region of the cell inside the plasma membrane and outside the nucleus
thte plasma membrane forming the outer boundary of the cell, composed of a phospholipid bilayer and interspersed with proteins and cholesterol molecules
the primary information bearing molecule of life
a nucleic acid that is active in the synthesis of proteins and that forms part of the structure of ribosomes
organelles located in the cytoplasm that is the site of protein synthesis
Rough ER
a network of membranes that aid in the processing of proteins
Smooth ER
network of membranes that are the site of the synthesis of various lipids and site at which potentially harmful substances are detoxified
Golgi Complex
network of membranes that process and distribute proteins that come from the rough ER
organelle that digests worn out cellular materials and foreign materials that enter the cell
organelle that is the primary site of energy conversion within the cell
network of protein filaments that functions in cell structure, cell movement, and the transport of materials within the cell
Cell Wall
thick layer of material that forms the periphery of plant, bacterial, and fungal cells
the organelle in a plant or algae cell that is the site of photosynthesis
Central Vacuole
large, watery organelle found in plants whose functions include the storage of nutrients and the retention and degredation of waste products
charged lipid molecule composed of two fatty acids, glycerol and a phosphate group
Integral Protein
a protein of the plasma membrane that is attached to the membrane's hydrophobic interior
an outer layer of the plasma membrane composed of short carbohydrate chains that attach to membrane proteins and phospholip molecules
Peripheral Protein
protein that lies on the inside or outside of the membrane but is not attached to the hydrophobic interior
Receptor Protein
protein with a binding site, located at the surface of the plasma membrane (binding of receptor protein with a certain molecule changes the cells activity)
Transport Protein
proteins that form a hydrophilic passage through the plasma membrane to allow things in and out
the movement of molecules or ions from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
Simple Diffusion
diffusion through the plasma membrane without a protein
Facilitated Diffusion
passage of materials through the plasma membrane aided by a transport protein
the movement of water through a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration
active transport
transport of materials across the plasma membrane where energy is expended (sodium potassium pump)
passive transport
Hypotonic Solution
solution that had lower concentration of solutes than others
Hypertonic Solution
solution that has higher concentration of solutes than another
Isotonic Solution
solution that has the same concentration of solutes as another
process in which a transport vesicle fuses with the membrane of a cell and the contents of the vesicle are ejected outside
process by which the plasma membrane folds inward and pinches off bringing materials into the cell in a transport vesicle
form of endocytosis that brings into the cell a small volume of extracellular fluid and solutes
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis (RME)
receptors on the surface of a cell bind to a substance and then move laterally through the membrane to join other receptors with the same substance (large enough group forms vesicle and enters the cell)
process of bringing relatively large materials into a cell by means of wrapping extensions of the plamsa membrane around the materials and fusing the extensions together