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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
All animals can trace their lineage to a common ancestor that lived in the _____.
Precambrian period
Gastrulation is the process that directly forms the _____.
primary germ layers
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all animals?
They have tissues, organs, and organ systems.
Which of the following is radially symmetrical?
a doughnut
An important trend in animal evolution was cephalization. An animal is said to have advanced cephalization when it ____________.
has an aggregation of neurons at the head end
Which of the following animals does NOT have a body cavity?
flatworm
Which of the following is evidence that the extant phylum most closely related to chordates is Echinodermata? (p. 636)
They are both deuterostomes.
During embryological development, the anus forms before the mouth in ____________.
humans
An animal is called a protostome or a deuterostome based on _____. (p. 638)
the fate of its blastopore
Most animal body plans first appeared during the _____. (p. 643)
Cambrian period
Animals probably evolved from colonial protists. How do animals differ from these protist ancestors?
Animals have more specialized cells.
Animals probably evolved from colonial protists. How do animals differ from these protist ancestors?
Animals have more specialized cells.
The animal phylum most like the protists that gave rise to the animals is _____.
Porifera
Symmetry is one of the most basic characteristics of animals. The phylum that has a different symmetry from the other three phyla listed is the ____________.
cephalization
How do cnidarians and ctenophores differ from all other eumetazoans?
Cnidarians and ctenophores are radially symmetrical.
All animals with bilateral symmetry have _______ germ tissue layer(s).
3
Ectoderm can give rise to _______; mesoderm can give rise to ______; endoderm can give rise to _________.
the central nervous system ... muscle ... the lining of the digestive tube
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of cnidarians?
mesoderm
The difference between pseudocoelomates and coelomates is that pseudocoelomates _________, whereas coelomates _________.
have a body cavity partially lined with tissue derived from mesoderm ... have a body cavity completely lined with tissue derived from mesoderm
A true coelom is ____________.
a body cavity lined with mesoderm
One of the primary developmental/anatomical characteristics distinguishing the major animal phyla is the condition of the body cavity. A pseudocoelomate animal is one in which the body cavity is _____.
bounded partly by mesoderm
The presence of a coelom is advantageous because _____.
it allows room for the development and movement of internal organs
Coelomates gave rise to _____.
protostomes and deuterostomes
Coeloms _____.
evolved independently more than once
Zoologists place chordates and echinoderms on one major branch of the animal phylogenetic tree, and mollusks, annelids, and arthropods on another major branch. Which of the following is a basis for this separation?
how the body cavity is formed
The zygotes of many protostomes undergo ______ and ______ cleavage.
spiral ... determinate
An animal with a true coelom that has ____________ cleavage must be a____________.
indeterminate, radial ... deuterostome
Protostomous animals are those in which the _____.
blastopore forms the mouth
The phrase "Cambrian explosion" refers to _____.
the rapid adaptive radiation that gave rise to most extant animal phyla
porifera (sponges)
no germ layers/no tru tissue
no nerves/muscles
no symmetry/non-segmentation
hemapherdotic
coelom called osculum
no circulatory system
aquatic areas
cnidaria (jelly fish)
polp/medusa
2 germ layers
radially symmetrical
no coelom...no mesoderm
gastrovascular cavity
no cephalizatoin
segmentation
no joing appendages
respitatory and circulatory pumps in and out
asexually reproduce
platyhelminthes (flatworm)
acoelomate (no body cavity)
3 germ layers
bilateral
lacks coelom
terrestirial digestive tract
cephalization-bilateral
developed nervous system
non-segmented
no skeleton
no ciculatroy system
no resp. system
asexually....sometimes sexual
marine, fresh water or damp places....PARASITES! EWW
Annelide ( earthworms)
3 germ layers
bilateral
cephalization
coelomates
complete digestive tract
no skeleton/appendages
closed circulatory system
breathes through skin(resp. system)
hermaphodides (reprodctuions)
live underwater/underground
molluska (snails and slugs)
complete digestive tract
mantle cavity and radula
circulatory system...muscular hrt
sexually reproduce
3 germ layers
bilateral
cephalization
no segmentation
Anthropoda (crabs)
open circulatory
segmented
exoskeleton
biltaral
coelom
hemocoel=main body cavity
complete digestive tract
internal fertilization
respiratory thru body
cephalization
3 germ layers
live on land and water
echinoderma
endoskeleton
bilateral
3 germ layers
coelomates-true coelom
no segmentation
no cephalization
aquatic
sep sexes
no defined systems-water vascular system
Currently, humans are the dominant form of animal life. Yet the subphylum to which humans belong, Vertebrata, makes up less than _____% of all animal species. (p. 646)
5
The animal phylum most like the protists that gave rise to the animals is _____. (p. 647)
Porifera
Bryozoans, phoronids, and brachiopods are collectively referred to as _____.
lophophorates
The phylum Nemertea, proboscis worms, differs from the phylum Platyhelminthes in that proboscis worms _____. (p. 655)
have a complete digestive tract
A marine biologist dredges up a small animal from the bottom of the ocean. It is uniformly segmented, with short, stiff appendages and soft, flexible skin. It has a complete digestive system and an open circulatory system, but no skeleton. Based on this you determine that the animal must be a(n) _____. (p. 659)
annelid
Which one of the following is thought to be most closely related to humans? (p. 672)
sea stars
You go to the supermarket and ask a clerk where you can find the gastropods. He takes you to the "weird food" section and points out a container of _____.
snails
You are given an unknown animal to study in the laboratory. You find it is triploblastic, it is acoelomate, it has a resistant cuticle, and it has male and female gonads in the same individual. This animal probably belongs in the phylum _____.
Platyhelminthes
Which one of following features is characteristic of the poriferan (sponge) body plan or life history?
motile larvae
The structure of primitive mollusks suggests that this group shared a close common ancestry with _____.
segmennted worms
Earthworms are most closely related to _____.
leeches
During reproduction by the oligochaete earthworm Lumbricus _____.
hermaphroditic individuals exchange sperm
The excretory organs of earthworms are called _____.
metanephridia
The _____ include the largest number of species.
arthropods
Which one of the following shows the animals listed in such a way that their phyla are in alphabetical order?
spiders, jellies, squids, tapeworms, sponges, rotifers
Complete metamorphosis __________.
features a larval stage that looks different from the adult
In arthropods, molting is necessary because ________.
the chitinous exoskeleton cannot grow
An unidentified species of animal displays the following characteristics: bilateral symmetry, determinate embryonic cleavage, a complete digestive system, an open circulatory system, and distinct body segmentation. To which one of the following animal phyla does this species most likely belong?
Arthropoda
The water vascular system of a sea star functions in _____.
movement of the tube feet
A starfish and a squid belong to the phyla __________ and __________, respectively.
Echinodermata ... Mollusca
The phylum Nemertea, proboscis worms, differs from the phylum Platyhelminthes in that proboscis worms _____.
they have a complete digestive system
A marine biologist dredges up a small animal from the bottom of the ocean. It is uniformly segmented, with short, stiff appendages and soft, flexible skin. It has a complete digestive system and an open circulatory system, but no skeleton. Based on this you determine that the animal must be a(n) _____.
annelid
A ____ is a chordate but not a vertebrate.
lancelet
It appears that cephalochordates evolved by a process that involved the development of mature reproductive organs in an otherwise juvenile form. This evolutionary process is called _____.
paedogenesis
A lamprey, a shark, a lizard, and a rabbit share all the following characteristics EXCEPT
hinged jaws
A feature of bony fish not found in sharks is(are) _____.
swim bladder
The gill flap, or operculum, was an important adaptation for fish because it helps with _____.
maintaining a supply of oxygen
In contrast to the traditional grouping of reptiles, cladistic analysis indicates that Reptilia is not a monophyletic group and that _____.
birds are more closely related to crocodiles than either is to turtles
Which of the following is NOT shared by extant birds and extant reptiles?
endothermic metabolism
Which one of the following characteristics appears in mammals, but not in reptiles?
a lower jaw consisting of a single bone
The opossum is an example of a(n) __________ mammal.
marsupial
Eutherians are viviparous, which means that __________.
the young develop within the female"s body
Whales and dolphins belong to the order _____.
Cetacea
If you were to observe a monkey in a zoo, which characteristic would indicate a New World origin for that monkey species?
use of the tail to hang from a tree limb
Humans and the slender loris, a prosimian, share many traits that probably evolved in our early primate ancestors, including _____.
opposable thumbs
Humans, apes, and monkeys are classified together as
anthropoids
Primates are distinguished from other mammals by __________.
opposable thumbs, nails, and good depth perception
Which of the following traits distinguishes hominids from apes?
bipedalism (upright walking)
Bipedalism is associated first with what hominid?
australopithecines, such as Lucy
The first hominid known to make tools is(was) _____.
Homo habilis
Homo erectus __________.
followed H. habilis
Which of the following correctly lists probable ancestors of modern humans from the oldest to the most recent?
australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus
Some anthropologists think that modern races of Homo sapiens evolved from separate populations of archaic H. sapiens in different geographic areas. How, then, do proponents of this multiregional hypothesis explain the great degree of genetic similarity among modern humans?
The ancestral Homo erectus originally came from Africa.
The multiregional and replacement hypotheses for the origin of modern humans agree that _____.
Homo erectus had an African origin
Which one of the following statements best fits the replacement hypothesis about the origin of modern humans?
Homo sapiens evolved from H. erectus in Africa and then migrated elsewhere.
Which of the following is NOT a diagnostic feature of the phylum Chordata
SEGMENTATION
Which of the following chordates is most likely to look least like a chordate?
adult tunicate
unique feature of vertebrates is
the neural crest
How do lampreys and hagfishes differ from other extant vertebrates?
They lack both jaws and paired appendages
Jaws developed _____.
by modification of the skeletal rods that previously supported the anterior pharyngeal gill slits
The diagnostic feature of class Chondrichthyes is _____.
an endoskeleton of calcified cartilage
Imagine that you are a paleontologist (a scientist who studies fossils of ancient life forms). In a recent dig, you unearthed bones of all of the following. Which could you have found in the oldest sediments?
amphibians
Listed below are four adaptations of terrestrial vertebrates. Which one is a characteristic only of truly terrestrial animals that have no need to return to bodies of water at any stage of the life cycle?
amniote eggs
There are three major groups of mammals, categorized on the basis of their _____.
methods of reproductino
Which of the following is NOT thought to be in the lineage that led to human beings?
dinosaur