Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/45

Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
phospholipid bilayer with attached or embedded proteins
structure of plasma membrane
molecules that can freely pass plasma membrane
`oxygen, carbon dioxide, water
hypotonic solution
cell has less solute, so water goes in
hypertonic solution
water leaves cell and it shrivels
nucleolus
ribosomal formation
ribosomes
synthesize proteins
RER
ribosomes-protein synthesis
SER
lipid synthesis
lysosome
intercellular digestion
mitochondria
powerhouse/ cellular respiration
atrophy
decrease in cell size
hypertrophy
increase in cell size
hyperplasia
increase in cell number due to an increased rate of cell division
dysplasia
abnormal size, shape, organization
neoplasia
cancerous, malignant, tumors
atoms
composed of protons, neutrons and encircled be electrons
molecules
formed when atoms join together
sponch
sulfur, phophorus, oxygen, nigrogen, carbon, hydrogen
isotope
same atom, have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
ions
particles with extra or missing election, has a charge and is weaker
ionic bonds
formed by the attraction b/t 2 oppositely charged ions, fall apart in water
covalent
two atoms share electrons, stable in water. water is covalent
macromolecules
polymers composed of many monomers
carbohydrates
monosaccharide
lipids
glycerol and fatty acids
nucleic acids
nucleotide
dehydration reaction
synthesizes a macromolecule by removing water to link subunits
hydrolysis reaction
degrades macromolecule by adding water to separate subunits
lipids
insulation against heat loss; provide long term energy storage; form protective padding around internal organs; lots of energy; don't dissolve in water (no polarity)
cell division requires
doubling of cellular organelles (G) doubling of nuclear material (s) synthesis of necessary proteins (g2) all during interphase
nucleotides
subunits of DNA
cytokinesis
division of cytoplasm and organelles after mitosis
late interphase
chromatins condensing into chromosomes
prophase
duplicated chromosomes are scattered, become visible
metaphase
duplicated chromosomes align at the equator
anaphase
sister chromatids separate and daughter chromosomes move to the poles of the spindle
telophase
chromosomes arrive at the poles
crossing-over
during prophase 1. exchange of genetic material between chromatids to increase variability of gametes
cyclin
must be present in the cell for mitosis to occur
p53
prepares damage
polygenic inheritance/multifactorial
one trait is governed by two or more sets of alleles
codominance
allels are equally expressed in a heterozygote (blood types)AB neither A nor B but third phenotype
incomplete dominance
heterozygote has an intermediate phenotype, curly hair, red and white flower makes pink
multiple alleic traits
gene exists in several allelic forms, example, ABO blood types
sex influened traits
ex. balding patterns, one allele in men, 2 in women