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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a chromosome made up of?
50% Protein, 50% Nucleic Acid
What did Griffith's experiment conclude?
"Transforming Principle"
What did Avery's experiment involve, and what did it conclude?
He removed organic compounds from bacteria to see if the substance would still transform. When it was mixed with DNA, the experiment worked.
Which scientists performed the "Avery" experiment on viruses?
Hershey-Chase
What is DNA made up of?
Nucleotides strung together, making a polymer
What are nucleotides made of?
Phosphate, sugar, nitrogeneous base
What are the two categories of nitrogeneous bases, and what falls under them?
Purines [Adenine, Guanine]
Pyrimidines [Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil]
Who came up with the rule that A = T and G = C?
Chargaff
What is the first picture of DNA?
Franklin's x-ray diffraction
Who discovered the double helix?
Watson and Crick
What are the base pairs of a double helix joined together by?
hydrogen bonds
How many base pairs make up one full twist?
10
What is the backbone of the double helix?
sugar-phosphate
What bonds the sugar-phosphate backbone together?
a covalent bond
What does replication ultimately do?
make DNA
In what phase of meiosis does DNA copy itself?
the S phase
What is the sequence of replication?
Strands separate, correct nucleotides pair up, new strands form
What controls the replication process?
Enzymes
What are 3 letter "words" called?
codons
There are _______ codons, but only ________ meanings.
64; 22
What are the three types of RNA?
messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA
Describe mRNA.
It's the recipe of the gene to make the protein.
Descripe tRNA.
It carries amino acids to be polymerized
Describe rRNA.
It is part of the ribosome, grips mRNA and "reads it."
What is DNA's function?
to permanently store genetic info
What is RNA's function?
to temporarily store gene info, and enzyme activity
What is transcription's ultimate purpose?
to make RNA
What occurs in transcription?
RNA polymerase enters the nucleus, binds to DNA and splits it in two, then uses one of the sides as a template for RNA
What is translation's ultimate goal?
to make proteins
What are the three types of gene mutations?
silent, missense, nonsense
KNOW GENE MUTATION CHART.
OKAY.
When is a gene mutation in the "location" category not so bad?
When the mutation is not on a gene, not expressed in a cell, or just in one cell.
When is a gene mutation in the "location" category very bad?
What the mutation is in a fertilized egg, or in the Growth Regulatory Cell--leading to cancer.
What are the 5 types of chromosomal breakage mutations?
Inversion, Duplication, Deletion, Translocation, Nondisjunction
What are causes of mutations?
Radiation and chemicals
What is a virus that infects bacteria?
a bacteriophage