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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Fossil
the preserved remains of an ancient organism
Ex: bones, skeletons, scales, shells, imprints
evolution
change in a kind of organism over time
species
a group of similar organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring
adaptation
characteristic that helps an organism survive
population
group of individuals of a species that live in the same area
gene pool
genetic information of all the members in a population
Biogeography
the geographic distribution of species
homologous structures
features that have different functions but are structurally similar because of common ancestry
vestigial organs
structures of very little importance
Ex: appendix, tailbone
Embryology
vertebral organisms have similar embryonic developmental stages
Natural selection
variation-> competition-> reproduction-> evolution

organism that is best adapted survives then reproduces such that offspring inherit their favorable traits
(survival of the fittest)
Artificial selection
humans select the desired traits and breed the organisms such that the new generation inherits the selected traits
Lamarck's theory
Theory of use and disuse of traits in 1809:

continually acquired features that would help them live thought those traits would move onto offspring

the DNA is not changed therefore the offspring will not inherit said acquired traits
competition
natural resources are limited these offspring struggle to survive
Fitness
the ability to survive and reproduce in its environment
Genetic drift
change in the gene pool due to chance
Founder effect
colonization of a new location by a small number of individuals
Bottleneck Effect
event that drastically reduces the population
gene flow
migration
mutation
change in DNA
speciation
the formation of a new species
Separation
Accumulation of adaptations
Division
reproductive isolation
occurs when the members of 2 populations cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring
geographic isolation
when populations are separated by geographic barriers such as rivers or mountains
temporal isolation
when populations of similar species mate at different times
behavioral isolation
when populations that have differences in courtship rituals that prevent them from breeding
neutral variation
genetic variation that provides no apparent selective advantage for individuals
Genetic equilibrium
when all gene frequencies in a population stay constant
5 Conditions to maintain genetic equilibrium
(Hardy + Weinberg)
Population must be large
No gene flow into or out of the population
No mutations
Mating must be random
No natural selection
Mechanisms for evolution
Natural selection
Genetic Drift
Gene Flow
Mutations
Non-random mating
About Darwin
Born 1809
Trip to Galapagos
Theory of natural selection