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18 Cards in this Set

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Gregor Mendel
studied heredity
used pea plants to predict how traits are transferred
Monohybrid
two parent plants differ from each other by a single trait
Punnett Square
Reginald Punnett
predicts the results of a cross
Phenotype
physical expression of trait
Genotype
combination of genes in an organism
Rule of Unit Factors
each organism has two factors that control each of its traits- genes
Rule of Dominance
the dominant-or observed trait of an organism that masks the recessive form of a trait
Law of Segregation
every individual has 2 alleles of each gene and when gametes are produced, each gamete receives one of these alleles.
Dihybrid Crosses
crosses using two traits
Law of Independent Assortment
genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other
diploid
a cell with two of each kind of chromosome
haploid
a cell containing one of each kind of chromosome
homologous chromosomes
the two chromosomes of each pair in a diploid cell
Meiosis
results in formation of gametes-reproductive cells. Maintains chromosome number of species
Phases of Meiosis
Interphase-chromosomes duplicate
Prophase I- chromosomes form tetrad(4 in a line) and nuclear membrane disappears
Metaphase I- tetrads line up along equator
Anaphase I- tetrads divide into 2s and move to poles
Telophase I- cytoplasm divides to form 2 cells each with 2n number of chromosomes
Prophase II- Chromosome number remains the same and spindel forms
Metaphase II- line up on equator again
Anaphase II-seperate and move to poles
Teophase II- cytoplasm divides to form 4 haploid cells
crossing over
chromatids in a tetrad pair tightly...so tightly that non-sister chromatids can break and exchange genetic material-Prophase I
nondisjunction
the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis
polyploidy
organisms with more than the usual number of chromosome sets-death?