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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
element
a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions
compound
substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio
trace elements
elements required by an organism in only minute quantities
atom
smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
neutrons, protons, and electrons
three types of subatomic particles
atomic nucleus
neutrons and protons are packed together tightly to form a dense core known as ___
neutral
a neutron has a ___ charge
positive
protons have a ___ charge
proton and neutron
which two subatomic particles are almost identical in mass
dalton, atomic mass unit, amu
a unit of measurement to measure the mass of an atom
atomic number
the number of protons in an element is the ___ ___
mass number
sum of the protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is known as the ___ ___
atomic mass
approximation of the total mass of an atom
isotopes
atoms with different numbers of neutrons
radioactive isotope
when the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy you have a ___ ___
energy
the capacity to cause change by doing work
potential energy
the energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure
energy levels
the different states of potential energy that electrons have in an atom
electron shells
symbolic representation of the average distance of an electron around a nucleus of an atom
lowest
the first shell closet to the nucleus has the ___ potentional energy
highest
electrons in the outermost shell have the ___ amount of energy
valence electrons
the outermost shell of electrons are called the ___ ___
valence shell
the outermost shell of electrons is called the ___ ___
orbital
the 3-dimentional space where an electron is found 90% of the time
chemical bonds
attractions that keep the atoms close together
covalent bond
the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms is a ___ ___
molecule
when two or more atoms are held together by a covalent bond it constitutes a ___
single bond
a single pair of shared electrons, such as in Hsub2
structural formula
the representation of the bonds between atoms (H-H,O=O)
double bond
when atoms share two covalent bonds it is a ___ ___
valence
the bonding capacity is called the ___, and it usually equals the number of unpaired electrons in the atom's outermost shell
electronegativity
the attraction of a particular kind of atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
nonpolar covalent bond
a bond where the electronegativity of both atoms is the same (H2,O2)
polar covalent bond
a bond where one atom has more electronegativity than the other
ion
a charged atom (or molecule)
cation
a positively charged ion
anion
a negatively charged ion
ionic bond
the attraction between opposite charges (cation and anion)
ionic compounds, aka salts
compounds formed by ionic bonds are called ___ ___, or ____
covalent
Which consist of molecules, covalent bonds or ionic bonds?
van der Waals interactions
ever-changing hot spots of positive and negative charge that enable all atoms and molecules to stick to one another
chemical reactions
the making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the composition of matter are ___ ___