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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
kinetic vs. potential energy
kinetic: energy of movement (light, heat, electricity)
potential: stored energy (ball on ledge)
what does it mean to say entropy increases as energy is converted from one form to another?
there tends to be a loss of orderliness, results in increase in randomness and disorder
how do things stay ordered?
constant input of energy, from sun and our food
what happens in a chemical reaction??
forms or breaks chemical bonds that hold atoms together (reactants --> products)
exergonic vs. endergonic
exergonic: releases energy, reactants have more energy than products
endergonic: requires input of energy, products have more energy than reactants
why is activation energy required for both?
because there is a shell of neg charged electrons surround molecules, these must be forced together, which requires energy
why is photosynthesis considered and energonic reaction?
it requires energy, sunlight, to begin the process and the product (sugar) has more energy than its reactants
where does the energy to drive and endergonic reaction like muscle contration come from?
energy realeased from exergonic reactions
what is the energy carrier molecule in cells?
is ATP short or long term energy storage?
short term, its unstable
where is the energy in ATP stored?
inbetween the chemical bonds between the 2 phosphate groups
when ATP is broken down what are the products?
ADP, energy, and a phosphate
what is the heat released used for?`
maintain high body temp for animals, allows them to move faster and respond more quickly
what are 2 other energy carrying molecules?
electron carriers, NAD+ and FAD
where is the energy stored?
in bonds between H and NAD
chemical reactions can be either...
anabolic (building molecules) or catabolic (breaking down)
metabolism is...
sum of all chemical reactions in a cell
2 metabolic pathways
photosynthesis (anabolic)
why do living cells require enzymes to control chemical reactions
because they have to do reactions at certain temp, and enzymes allow that to happen
2 energy carriers other than ATP
common things between inorganic and organic molecules
1.speed up reactions by lowering AE
2.rxn still has to occur naturally
3.are not consumed
what organic molecule are most enxymes composed of?
proteins, tertiary
2 characteristics of biological catalysts, but not inorganic
contain carbon, proteins
what fits into active site of enxyme?
what 2 features of active site make it fit with only specific molecules?
shape, and electrical charge
what 2 things chage shape when a substrate enters active site?
substrates and active site change shape
why is the finished product rejected after the reaction has taken place?
no longer fits properly in active site
what happens to enzyme after products are rejected?
goes back to its orginal configuration
5 ways cells regulate enzyme activity
1.making more (synthesizing)
2.making inactive ones (for later) inhibition
4.allosteric inhibition (change shape)
5.competitive inhibition (compete for active site)
what 4 environmental conditions affect the activity of enzymes?
temp, pH, salt concentration, and presence of co-enzymes
how does salt/refridge help preserve food?
kills bacteria by forming bonds wiht enzymes
fridge slows movement, less change of getting into active site
why are vitamins important?
used by body to synthesize conenzymes