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49 Cards in this Set

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Sensory receptors
transduce or convert the energy of the stimulus to elctrical signals into graded potntials that result in action potentials
Interoreceptors
w/in body orgns that detect changes in pH, temperature, chemical composition.
Sensory rceptors steps
-absorb a small amt of energy from some stimulus
-energy transduction
-produce receptor potntial
Energy transduction
Convert energy of stimulus into electrical energy
Receptor potential
Depolarization or hyperpolarization of th membrane
Sensory adaptation
Decrease in frequency of action potntials. response to a continued, constant stimulus is maintained.
Mechanoreceptors
activated whn they change shape as a result of bing mechnically pushed or pulled
Proprioceptors
-help maintain postural relations
-located w/in muscles, tendons & joints
-respond to tension & movement
-animals can perceive body parts position
Stereocilia
-projections found in hair cells
-Mechanical stimulation causes voltage changes.
Vestibular apparatus
-maintains equilibrium
-3componnts:
1-saccule
2-utricle
3-semicircular canals
Saccule & Utricle
-detect the position of th head
-house otoliths
-sensory cells ar hair cells. The stereocilia ar coverd by cupula
Otoliths
-housed by saccul & Utricles
-gravity detctors in th form of calcium carbonate ear stones
-embedded in th cupula
Pull of gravity & otoliths
gravity causes the otoliths press against th stereocilia, stimulating them to intitiat impulses.
Saccule & Utricle
-detect the position of th head
-house otoliths
-sensory cells ar hair cells. The stereocilia ar coverd by cupula
Otoliths
-housed by saccul & Utricles
-gravity detctors in th form of calcium carbonate ear stones
-embedded in th cupula
Pull of gravity & otoliths
gravity causes the otoliths press against th stereocilia, stimulating them to intitiat impulses.
Semicircular canals
-detection of the head
-turning movements is provided by 3 canals
-each canal is a hollow ring connected w/utricle.
-Filled with endolymph
Endolymph
fluid in semicircular canal
Cochlea
-hair cells detect pressure waves
-consists of 3 canals.
-organ of corti located on the middle canal
organ of corti
-contains hair cells which have stereocilia.
-hair cells rest in basilar membrane and are in contact with the tectorial membrane
How sound travels thru the ear
Sound waves:
(1)pass thru th extrnal auditory canal and vibrat the tympanic membrane
(2)vibrate thru the bones
(3)go thru the oval window into the cochleas
Bones of the ears
-amplify vibrations
-malleus: in contact w/ear drum
-incus
-stapes: in contact w/oval window
Round window
"escape valve" for pressure in the canals
Eustachian tube
-connects the middle ear region w/throat
-equalizes the pressure coming in and out
Pressure waves in the cochlea
-Waves are transmitted to the middle canal, where they produce vibrations in the basilar membrane.
-The pulsations cause the sterocilia to rub back and forth on the tectorial membrane
-stimulation of the sterocilia causes action potntials to be generated.
-these nerve impulses are transmitted to the brain via cochlear nerve.
Hi-pitch sound
waves have sufficient energy to distend the proximal portion of th basiliar membrane
Low pitch sound
waves can distend only the distal portion of the basilar membrane.
chemoreceptive systms
Gustation and olfaction
Taste buds
-capsule containing taste rceptor cells
-food molecules bind with specific receptor molecules
-receptor potential is generated, followed by an action potntial in an associated neuron, which carris the impulse to the brain.
olfactory epithelium
-found in the roof of the nasal cavity.
-olfactory cells are neurons
-tips bind with molecules in th air. which causes and action potential generated which travls to the brain
Photoreceptors
use pigments to absorb light energy
Rhodopsins
photopigments found in eyes
Iris
regulates the size of the pupil
Choroid layer
a sheet of cells filled with black pigment that absorbs xtra light,preventing light from being reflected into th photoreceptors that would cause blurring of images
sclera
tough, opaque, curved sheet of connective tissue that maintains rigidity of the eyeball
Cornea
transparent layer, thru which light enters
Lens
transparent, elastic ball

bends the light rays...and brings them to a focus on th retina
Anterior cavity
b/t the cornea & the lens is filled with aqueous fluid
Postrior cavity
b/t lens & retina. filled w/ vitreous body. Internal fluid pressure
ciliary body
where the choroid is thick and projects into the eyeball
Accommodation
the ability to change focus for near or far vision. with the aid of the ciliary muscle
Retina
-light sensitiv structure
-has rods and cones
Rods
function in dim light. not sensitive to colors. more numerous
Cones
respond to light at higher levels of intensity. responsible for color vision.
Fovea
where the cones are concentrated. region of sharpest vision.
Optic disk
area where the optic nerve passes out of the eyeball. "blind spot".

lacks rods and cones
ability to see
rhodopsin in the rod cells help aid in seeing
rhodopsin
2 parts:

opsin: large protein
retinal: form of vitamin A. cis and trans form exists
Light & rhodopsin
light transforms cis into trans. This causes the rhodopsin to change shape. Causing a receptor potential which is converted to an action potntial.