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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the smallest units that retain the properties of an element
carries a positive charge, or a defined amount of electricity, sybolized as p+
, an atoms nucleus holds one or more protons
neutrons have no charge.
these zip around the nucleus which carry a negative charge, symbolized e-
these balance each other
protons p+, and electrons e+,

*an atom that has the same number of electrons and protons has no electrical charge.
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of its atoms. For example, the atomic number for hydrogen, which has one proton is 1. For carbon, with six protons, its atomic number is 6.
mass number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the atomic neucleus. For example, carbon, with 6 p+ and 6 n, has a mass number of 12.
periodic table
the elements are organized according to their atomic number. Those in the same column have the same number of electrons
inert elements
none of their electrons is available for chemical interaction
number of elements that occur naturally on earth
He discovered radioactivity
Henri Becquerel
one of two or more forms of an element that differ in the number of neutrons and their neuclei
number to the left of an elements symbol is the isotopes mass number (combined number of protons and neutrons)
too many or too few neutrons in the nucleus can cause this
to be unstable or radioactive
radioactive decay
the process when a radioactive atom spontaneously emits energy as subatomic particles and xrays when its nucleus disintegrates
a certain type of molecule in which a radioisotope gets substituted for a stable element in that molecule
volumes of space around the nucleus
an atoms number of electrons is the same amount of
the many chemical reactions that occur in organisms
a chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes mutation
a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA; the ultimate source of genetic diversity
name three parts of a nucleotide
an organic monomer consisting of a 5-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
a control mechanism in whick a chemical reaction, metabolic pathway, or hormone secreting gland is inhibited by the products of the reaction, pathway, or gland. As the concentration of the products builds up, the product molecules themselves inhibit the process that produce them
non polar covalent bond
an attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons equally because the atoms have similar electronegativity
noncompetative inhibition
a structure with a specialized function within a cell
the passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane
osmotic pressure
cellular "eating"; a type of endocytosis whereby a cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm
a molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of of biological membranes, having a polar , hydrophilic head and a non polar hydrophibic tail
cellular "drinking", a type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membranous vesicles
the liquid matrix of the blood in which the blood cells are suspended
polar covalent bond
an attraction between atoms that share electrons unqually. The shared electrons are pulled closer to one atom, making it partially negative and the other atom patrially positive.
receptor-mediated endocytosis
the movement of specific molcules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles. The vesicles contain proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in.
reverse transcriptase
an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA on an RNA template
ribonucleic acid. A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribsoe sugar and the nitrogenous bases ACGU. Usually single stranded, functions in protein synthesis as the genome of some viruses
a substance that is dissolved in a solution
the dissolving agent in a solution. Water is the most versatile known solvent.
Watson & Crick
what is the difference btwn prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and plant and animal cells