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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
photosynthesis
converting light energy to chemical energy stored in sugar and organic molecules.
REDOX
chlorophyll
green pigment located inside chloroplasts
mesophyll
where chloroplasts are found, the tissue in the interior of the leaf
stomata
microscopic pores that allow carbon dioxide in, and oxygen out.
thylakoid
pancake
equation
6 co2 +6 H20 + light energy--> c6h1206 + 6 o2
chloroplasts
split water as a source of hydrogen and oxygen is given off also
(oxygen given off by plants is derived from water, not co2.)
02
waste product, restores the oxygen consumed during cellular respiration
electrons
water is split, electrond are transferred along with hydrogen ions from the water to co2, reducing it to sugar. the electrons increase in potential energy as they move from water to sugar. this energy boost is from light.
light reactions
convert solar energy to chemical energy. light absorbed by chlorophyll drives a transfer of electrons and hydrogen from water to NADP+ (stores e-).
light reactions give off o2 as a byproduct.
nadp+
light reactions use solar power to reduce NADP+ to NADPH by adding a pair of electrons and an H+.
phosphorylation
generate ATP by powering the addition of a phosphate groupd to ADP.
light reactions summary
(makes ATP and NADPH)
convert solar power to chemical power in the form of NADPH (energized electrons) and ATP (energy currency of cells)
carbon fixation
incorporating co2 from the air into organic molecules in the chloroplast
calvin cycle
(makes sugar)
reduces the fixed co2 to carbohydrates with electrons from NADPH and energy from ATP. IN STROMA
light
electromagnetic energy (or radiation) that moves in waves and distubrs electrical and magnetic fields.
wavelength
distance between crests of electromagnetic waves
electromagnetic spectrum
entire range of radiation
visible light
various colors detected by the human eye. blue and red are absorbed by chlorophyll.
photons
discrete particles that make up light. the shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy of each photon of that light.
pigments
absorb visible light. absorbed wavelengths dissapear. ability to absorb wavelengths is measured by a spectrophotometer.
absorption spectrum
graph plotting a pigments light absorption versus wavelength
action spectrum
profiles the relative performance off the different wavelengths.
cholorphyll a
(blue green)
only pigment that can participate directly in the light reactions
chlorophyll b
(yellow green)
accessory pigment(can absorb and transfer energy to another pigment) that is slightly structurally different that chlorophyll b and thus has a diff. absorption spectra.
cartenoids
(yellow orange)
accessory pigments (hydrocarbons) that broaden the spectrum of colors that drive photosynthesis. photoprotection- absorb and dissipate excessive light energy that might damage chlorophyll.
absorption
the energy of an absorbed photon is converted to the potential energy of an electron raised from the ground state to the excited state. when electrons drop back to normal state, heat, light or photons may be given off.
photosystems
chlorophyll organized along with proteins and other kinds of organic molecules in the thylakoid membrane
reaction center
where the first light-driven chemical reactin of photosynthesis occurs.
antenna complex
cluster of all of the pigment molecules. absorbs photons and transmit the energy between molecules until the correctly positioned chlorophyll a is reached.
primary electron receptor
shares reaction center with positioned chlor. a. redox: light excites electrons to higher level in chlor, electron acceptor traps the electron before it can get back to ground level.
noncyclic electron flow #1
primary eletron acceptor captures an excited electron. the oxidized chlorophyll is an electron hole that must be filled.
noncyclic electron flow #2
an enzyme extracts electrons from water for the 680 hole, forming to Hs and 1 O which immeadiately bonds with another 0 to make o2.
noncyclic electron flow #3
excited electrons pass from PSII to PSI by the e.t.c. electron carriers are Pq and Pc
noncyclic electron flow #4
electrons fall down the e.t.c. (exergonic) producing the energy necessary to make ATP (noncyclic photophosphorylation)
noncyclic electron flow #5
electron reaches bottom of e.t.c and fills the 700's hole that was created by light energy driving an electron form P700 to the pirmary acceptor of PSI.
noncyclic electron flow #6
PSI passes the excited electrons to a 2nd etc which transmits them to Fd. the enzyme NADP+ reductase transfer electrons from Fd to NADP+. This is the redox reaction that gives NADPH high energy e-.
cyclic electron flow
does not use photosystem II. no production of NADPH and no oxygen. generates ATP through cyclic photophosphorylation.
deciding between cyclic and noncyclic
more ATP is consumed that NADPH in the calvin cycle. if NADPH starts to build up, the chlorophyll switches to cyclic (no nadph)