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79 Cards in this Set

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heterosis
hybrids less fit than homozygous (hybrid vigor)
linkages
alleles linked on gene, good gene comes with bad gene (most fit indiv. wouldn't have bad gene)
epistasis
linked genes, but not on same allele
environmental variation
organism must adapt to summer and winter, can't be best adapted to both
bottlenecks
catastrophe makes population very small, limited gene pool
genetic drift
chance events eliminate good genes (deer hit by a truck)
founder effects
small pop, little genetic variation
homologous structure
human/horse leg, common descent
analogous structure
insect/bat wing, not common descent
spatial isolation
cannot meet to reproduce
temporal isolation
mate at different times
mechanical isolation
cannot copulate
behavioral isolation
do not attract each other
gametic isolation
copulate, but cannot fertilize
prezygotic barriers
prevent mating, more effecient because no offspring produced
postzyotic barriers
offspring unfit, less eficient because energy goes into producing offspring
hybrid zygote abnormality
die during development
hybrid infertility
can mate, but infertile
low hybrid viability
survive less well
age of earth
4.6 billion yrs
What makes life
Cell membrane, enzymes, incorporating smaller molecular droplets, reproduction
Prokaryotes
harsh environments, created atmosphere, diverse metabolic pathways, 3.8 bya, asexual
Single-celled Eukaryotes
1 bya, nucleus, protists (slime molds, diatoms, amoebae, algae), primary producers, decomposers
Multi-celled Eukaryotes
700 mya, algae and slime molds, sponges
heteromorphic
alternation of generations - haploid stage looks different from diploid stage (we are diplontic)
cambrian revolution
590-505 mya, trilobites, snails, sponges, worms, giant jellyfish, predators --> diversification of species
Cnideria
radial symmetry, jellyfish, anemones, blind gut
diploblastic
2 cell layers, Cnidaria
triploblastic
3 cell layers, proto and deuterostomes
blind gut
excrement leaves through mouth
complete gut
food exits a different place than it comes in
acoelomate
flatworm, no body cavity divisions
pseudocoelomate
roundworm, body cavity divisions
coelomate
earthworm, cavity divisions and surrounded by peritoneum
Lophotrochozoans
flatworms, segmented worms, molluscs
Ecdysozoans
round worms, onychophorans, water bears, trilobites, crustaceans, have segmened bodies
deuterostomes
echinoderms, tunicates, notochord
Ordovician
490-443 mya, everything BIG, giant coral, bryozoans, brachiopods, trilobites, giant snails, giant squids
choradates
undergo neoteny,
neoteny
retention of jevunile char. in adults of species or sexually mature larva (larval tunicates become lancelets)
dikaryotic
nuclei of gametes don't fuse until conditions favorable
Silurian
appearance of dry land, fish
ostracoderms
earliest fish, jawless, chordates precede fish
Devonian seas
more dry land, appearance of freshwater
condrichthyes
cartilaginous fish, hagfish, lamprey
postzyotic barriers
offspring unfit, less eficient because energy goes into producing offspring
hybrid zygote abnormality
die during development
hybrid infertility
can mate, but infertile
low hybrid viability
survive less well
age of earth
4.6 billion yrs
What makes life
Cell membrane, enzymes, incorporating smaller molecular droplets, reproduction
Prokaryotes
harsh environments, created atmosphere, diverse metabolic pathways, 3.8 bya, asexual
Single-celled Eukaryotes
1 bya, nucleus, protists (slime molds, diatoms, amoebae, algae), primary producers, decomposers
Multi-celled Eukaryotes
700 mya, algae and slime molds, sponges
heteromorphic
alternation of generations - haploid stage looks different from diploid stage (we are diplontic)
cambrian revolution
590-505 mya, trilobites, snails, sponges, worms, giant jellyfish, predators --> diversification of species
Cnideria
radial symmetry, jellyfish, anemones, blind gut
diploblastic
2 cell layers, Cnidaria
triploblastic
3 cell layers, proto and deuterostomes
blind gut
excrement leaves through mouth
Bryophytes
first plants, mosses, Silurian
Ecdysozoans
insects, myriapodes, chelicerates (spiders)
Carboniferous
age of insects and amphibians, first gymnosperms (GIANT dragonflies, amphibians)
Permian
mass extinction, trilobites extinct, reptiles appear
Mesozoic
age of reptiles (dinosaurs), angiosperms arrive at end
Dinosaurs died because...
environments became toxic
couldn't eat angiosperms
cooler atmosphere
Tertiary
Age of Mammals, giant birds replaced by mammal predators
3 types of mammals
monotremes (platypus)
marsupial (kangaroo)
placental (us)
What makes us human?
Walk upright
large brain to body ratio
tool use
speech, abstract thought
biodiversity began to decline when humans...
stopped hunting/gathering and started agriculture
imprinting
how animal knows who mother is (Konrad Lorenz, ducks)
Stimulus response
Niko Tinbergen, put red dot on mother's beak
Communication
Karl von Frisch, waggle-dance
Proximate vs. Ultimate
Why vs. How
Amensalism
(0 / - ) competition and parasitism
Commensalism
( 0 / + )
Mutualism
+ / +
Competition
- / -
Predation or parasitism
- / +