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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Nervous System
-located in skull and spine
Dorsal-top of brain, toward the back
Superior-Above, top
Ventral-Toward stomach, bottom
Anterior-Toward the front
Posterior-Toward the rear
Peripheral Nervous System
-Located outside the spine and skull
2 division:
1. Autonomic
2. Somatic
Autonomic vs. Somatic NS
-skeletal muscle
-always excitatory
-controlled by cerebrum
-Smooth cardiac muscle
-Excitatory or inhibitory
-Controlled by Pons, Hypothalamus, Medulla
3 divisions
1)Sympathetic 2)Parasympathetic
Autonomic Division
1.Sympathetic - Fight-or-Flight, exercise, excitement, emergency, embarrassment

2. Parasympathetic - Vegetative responses-rest, relaxation, digestion, defecation, diuresis

3.Enteric - Regulates Digestion - 2nd brain=gut feeling - communicates to CNS via ANS - own neurons
Membrane surrounding brain and spinal cord
-dura matter
-arachnoid matter
-pia matter
Corpus Callosum
Large set or bundles of axons that connect the 2 hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
-Commissurotomy-surgical seperation of brain hemispheres--> disconnection syndrome
Frontal Lobe
Higher cognitive functions
Executive functioning:Problem solving, spontaneity, metamemory, language, judgment, impulse control, motivation, behavior regulation
1.Broca's Area-left frontal lobe-associated with certain aspects of language-mostly language production
2.Prefrontal Cortex-Responds mostly to sensory stimuli that signal need for movement
3.Motor Cortex
-primary and secondary
-motor homunculus
-Precentral Gyrus-control of find movements
Parietal Lobe
-Sensations: touch, smell, taste
-Spatial awareness
-Numerical info
-Hand-eye coordination
1.Somatosensory Cortex-touch sensations & info from muscle, stretch and joint receptors
2.Sensory Homunculus- Postcentral Gyrus
Temporal Lobe
-Lateral portion of each hemisphere
-Emotions, Memory, Understanding music, aggression, sexual behavior
-Auditory Info
1.Primary Auditory Cortex- Cells respond best to tones of a particular frequency
2.Wernicke's Area-Left temporal lobe associated with language comprehension
Occipital Lobe
-Posterior end of the brain
-Vision and Recognition
1.Primary Visual Cortex (Striate Cortex)
Basal Ganglia
Primary Function= Motor Control
-Parkinson's & Huntington's Disease--When it deteriorates
-Group of subcortical structures lateral to thalamus
3 Major Structures
1.Caudate Nucleus
3.Globus Palidus
-Kluver-Bucy Syndrome-fail to display normal fears & anxiety
Sensory relay center
-Aphasia-language impairment
Verbal Learning and memory
-Alzheimer's Disease
-Part control over ANS
-Controls endocrine system
-Regulates body temp
-Emotional responses & behaviors
-connects to amygdala
-regulates food intake
-regulates thirst
-sexual activity
-circadian rhythm-sleep wake cycle
Limbic System
-Regulates emotion, motivation and memory
-Directly connects lower and higher brain functions
-Where senses and awareness are 1st processed in the brain
-Substantia Nigra
-Superior & Inferior Colliculi
--visual processing
--auditory processing
--muscle movements
---saccadic eye movements
---orient head & eyes toward something
Hindbrain **
1.Brainstem-most primitive
--controls breathing, HR, BP, swallowing, reflexes, sweating, sleep and balance
2.Cerebellum-connected to brainstem
--"little brain"
--coordinated body movements, balance, posture
Hindbrain **
The Pons
Medulla Oblongata
3.The Pons-"Bridge"
--connects cerebellum to brain
--modify respiratory output of the medulla
--contains-reticular activating system & raphe nuclei
4.Medulla Oblongata
--creates base of brainstem
--control center for involuntary reflexes-> Swallowing, sneezing, coughing
--Regulation of HR, BP, breathing
Spinal Cord
-Medulla to L2
White Matter = Myelinated Axons
Gray Matter = Cell bodies, dendrites, 'H' Shape
-Reflexes-sensory info to cord
-Somatic Reflexes-Position and speed of muscles need to be monitored constantly (hand on hot stove)
-Visceral(autonomic) Reflexes- Abdominal & Thoracic organs (blood pressure changes)

--Nerves carry impulses to and from brain to rest of body
--communicates with sense organs & muscles below level of head
Bell-Magendie Law
-Dorsal fibers carry sensory information

-Ventral Fibers carry motor info
Whole neurons move toward destination
-neocortex is last layer to develop
-Development of myelin sheath that insulates axon
-Glia produce the insulating fatty sheaths that accelerate transmission in many vertebrate axons
-Later and slower

Spinal Cord--Hindbrain--Midbrain--Forebrain
-Rapid formation of new synapses
1.Axons sprout to innervate many targets
2.Axon target interactions cause target to choose which axon
-synapse survival
-Neurotrophic factors
--promotes neuron survival(nerve growth factor)
--tigger apoptosis-90% neurons commit suicide in fetal ND
Role of Experience
-Axons and dendrites continually reorganize due to experience
-Dendrites continually grow new spines--new connections
-Extensive activation strengthens connections
-improves ability in that area but not necessarily in others
-Experience fine tunes connections
-Enriched environment
Enriched Environment
-thicker cortex
-increased neuron connections
-increased dendritic branching
Mind Activity
Physical Activity
Social Networking
Peripheral Nervous System
Axon Regeneration
Axons Grow Back
-crushed or cut neuron
-Wallerian Degeneration
-Axons seperated from cell body will degenerate
-Axons will regenerate
-Schwann cells provide guidance
-Goal: Restore function
Problem-May not line up correctly-Wrong activation or sensation
Central Nervous System
Axon Regeneration
Axons DONT Grow Back
-Dont regenerate
Why-Oligodendrocytes don't provide guidance
-Scare Tissue Build up
-guidance channels
-stem cells
-nerve growth factor
-gene therapy
Denervation Supersensitivity
Heightened sensitivity to a neurotransmitter after the destruction of an incoming neuron
-When postsynaptic cell is deprived of input for a long time it becomes more sensitive to NT's
Neuron seeks new target
Nerve fibers grow, become bushier, and make new connections
-Recovery of cognitive skills is strongly correlated with extensive arborization in the remaining intact cortex
Restorative Approach
-Pumping Iron
-Effective for hemiparesis-regions recruited for control
-Ineffective for cognitive functions-language, memory...
Compensatory Approach
-Minimize loss of a skill
-Do not reorganize the brain
-different skills-external devices(memory notebook)
Alternative Approach
-Change how skill is done