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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
taxonomy
the naming and classifying of diverse forms of life
taxon
category
species
group whose members possess similar anatomical characteristics and have ability to interbreed
phylogeny
evolutionary relationships
systematics
study of the evolutionary relationships among organisms
prokaryotes
lack nuclei and varioius organelles of eukaryotes, possess single "naked" chromosome consisting of single DNA molecule without proteins found in eukaryotes, some have plasmids in addition to major chromosome, cell walls of most contain peptidoglycans
plasmids
small circular DNA molecules
transformation
uptake of free DNA
transduction
trnasport of DNA by viruses
autotroph
make own food
photoautotrophs
make own food by light energy (photosynthesis)
chemoautotrophs
make food by using energy obtained from inorganic substances
heterotroph
get energy by eating organic substances
parasite
get energy from living tissues of host
saprobes
get energy from dead decaying matter, decomposers
obligate aerobes
prokaryotes that must have oxygen to live
obligate anaerobes
survive only in absence of oxygen
facultative anaerobe
grows in presence of oxygen but when oxygen absent, can switch to anaerobic metabolism
eubacteria
"true" bacteria
archaebacteria
cell walls lack peptidoglycans; ribosomes mroe similar to eukaryotes' ribosomes than to eubacteria; plasma membranes contain lipids different from those found in other organisms' plasma membranes
extreme halophiles
live in environments with high concentrations of salt, most anaerobic and heterotrophic while others opposite w/bacteriorhodopsin
thermoacidophiles
live in hot and acid environments, chemoautotrophs
fossil record
sequence in which fossils appear in layers of sedimentary rock that constitute Earth's surface
paleontologists
study fossil record
fossils
found in sedimentary rock formed from layers of minerals settling out of water
convergent evolution
2 organisms develop similarities as they adapted to similar environmental challenges (not from common ancestor)
analogous
similarities in organisms from having to survive in common environment
homologous
similar internal structures/functions determined by DNA often with different external appearances
molecular systematics
comparison of different genes & proteins
binomial nomenclature
used to describe species, consists of genus and species
phylogenetic trees
used to depict hypotheses about evolutionary relationships; if shared characteristics explain by common ancestry->cladogram forms basis of phylogenetic tree
cladogram
patterns of shared characteristics among taxa
clade
(within tree) group of species that includes ancestral species & all its descendants
cladistics
analysis of how many species may be grouped into clades
parsimony
simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts should be investigated first
most parsimonious
which hypothesis requires fewest total evolutionary events
3 domain
bacteria, archea, eukarya
binary fission
asexual reproduction, each dividing daughter cell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome
conjugation
genes are directly transferred from one prokaryote of another
photoheterotrophs
use light to make ATP but must obtain their carbon from outside source already fixed in organic compounds
chemoheterotrophs
get carbon & energy from organic compounds; saprobes & parasites
extreme thermophiles
live in very hot environments, prokaryotes
symbiotic
form relationships w/other species
alternation of generations
life cycle that consists of gametophyte and sporophyte stage
gametophyte
plant cells are haploid; games are produced; during fertilization, egg & sperm fuse to form diploid zygote (sporophyte) which divides mitotically
sporophyte
plant cells are diploid; diploid zygote
spore
cell produced by plant that can develop into new plant w/o fusing w/another cell
cuticle
waxy layer made up of polymers that prevents water loss from above-ground organs
xylem
made up of dead cells thru which H2O is conducted from roots to stem
phloem
conduct glucose from leaves down stem to roots
seed plants
vascular plants that produce seeds
monocot
having veins that run parallel on surface of leaf
eudicots
netlike vein patterns on leaves
fruit
mature ovaries of plant
radial symmetry
any cut through central axis of organism would produce mirror images
bilateral symmetry
have right & left side, and single cut would divide animal into 2 mirror image halves
coelomates
possess body cavity filled with fluid, space separates animal's digestive tract from outer body wall; forms from tissue derived from mesoderm
pseudocoelomates
animal whose body cavity is not completely lined by mesoderm
acoelomates
flatworms, have no cavities b/t their alimentary canal and outer wall of their bodies
hermaphrodites
function as both male and female and produce both sperm and eggs
parthenogenesis
females produce unfertilized eggs from which more females hatch
ectothermy
animals (reptile, fish, amphibian) that must use environmental energy and behavioral adaptations to regulate its body temp
endothermy
animals (bird, mammals) that use metabolic heat to regulate body temp
notochord
longitudinal, flexible rod that runs along dorsal axis of animal's body in future position of vertebral column
vertebrate
chordate with backbone
endoskeleton
hard skeleton buried w/in soft tissues of animal
exoskeleton
hard encasement on surface of animal
endospore
thick-coated, resistant cell produced w/in bacterial cell exposed to harsh conditions
multicellularity
specialization & differentiation occur -> increase efficiency & improves survival
cephalization
evolutionary trend toward concentration of sensory equipment on hte anterior end of body