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19 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Laws of Segregation
two alleles for a character are packaged into separate gametes

(Mendelian)
Law of Independent Assortment
each pair of alleles segregates inot gametes independently
Incomplete Dominance
compromise in phenotype

i.e. red+white= pink flower!
Codominance
when 2 alleles affect a phenotype like blood type AB
-both are completely expressed
Multiple Alleles
when more than two alleles affect a phenotype
Pleiotropy
when one gene affects more than one phenotype
Ex: sickle cell anemia
Epistasis
where a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus

ex: dog and mouse coats
ie. Bbcc-no color
Polygenic Inheritance
when multiple genes are responsible for a phenotype

ex:AaBbCc skin types
nondisjunction
occurs when problems with meiotic spindle cause error in daughter cells
aneuploidy
abnormal chromosome numbers

i.e. extra chromosome or missing chromosome
trisomy
3 copies of any chromosome

i.e. makes down syndrome
monosomy
only one copy of a chromosome
polyploid
more than two complete sets of chromosomes

i.e. twins
point mutation
change in one base pair
base pair substitution
one nucleotide is switched with the other

C
G X
A
silent mutations
has no effect on proteins becuase a change in the base pair transforms the codon into the same amino acid or it was an intron
missents
base pair substitue that the new codon codes for an amino acid that make sense-but not the right one
nonsense
codes to stop codon
frame shift mutations
when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted causing the end not to be 3