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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Karl Von Frisch
guy who studied bees and their behavior
during cloudy weather, bees continue to forage by....
using a combo of memory of the Sun's course and landmarks
what is true flight?
self-powered, sustained motion through the air
arboreal theory
proposed that birds gradually evolved flight through the transition of a tree-living animal from gliding to powered flight
cursorial theory
proposed that flight developed by a running bipedal animal as a result of the evolution of proto-wings that produced thrust and thus greater speed

migration is more common among...
birds in higher latitudes
bobolinks have...
the New World's longest migration and use internal cues rather than stellar ones
Western European birds winter in...
West Africa
Eastern European birds winter in...
East Afirca
raptors use....
thermals and updrafts to fly
281 species of birds migrate through....
Eurasia and Africa
Elenora's falcons...
prey on birds trying to make it across difficult barriers
about 5% of the Eurasian-African migratory species are...
either mainly or wholly seed eaters
migratory birds often times tend to....
spend more time in the Tropics annually than they spend in their northern breeding grounds
migratory birds tend to inhabit....
uncut forests, secondary growth, upland areas and edge habitats
monarch butterflies fly along 3 major flyways...
the East Coast, the Missippi Valley and the West Coast.
toothed whales migrations are
less extensive than baleen spcies migrations
helps to navigate throughout caves
an association of soils, resulting from difference of drainage and relief is called...
Why don't caribou interbreed?
because of different migratory routes
What 3 places have the most bird diversity?
Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador
What determines a whale's migration?
Food supply
What is an example of an altitudinal migrant?
finch; in winter it lives at the base of the mountain and during the summer it climbs upward for a climate change
What are the 3 most efficient types of migration?
2. Flying
3. Walk/run
Sedentary vs. Migratory
Sedentary means it does not migrate. Food and climate are perfect wherever a sedentary lives. This avoids the bottleneck effect.
leapfrog migration is....
answer will be non-migrators
Hazards of migration are....
1. passes over water
2. loss of body weight
3. loss of territory
4. competition for new territory
Advantages of migration are....
1. genetic mixing
2. escape bad weather/climate
3. natural selection (weaker birds die on trek, strong survive)
4. new food
T or F. Loss of 1/4 of a bird population is advantageous.
Pied flycatchers
when the caterpillar it eats becomes toxic, it migrates to wherever the caterpillar isnt toxic
Purple martin
has homing capabilities
wild canary
was getting pushed north, it go too cold up north so it migrated south
Antartic tern, wandering albatross
a mainly sedentary bird that circumnavigates the South Pole
Artic Tern
champion migrator; from Antartica to the Artic Circle
T or F: as you increase in latitude, there will be an increased percentage of birds.
blackfooted and shorttail albatross
migrate east to west
use celestial or solar navigation. hardwired with magnetic help along with landmark recognition
Major Fanual Regions
1. Neartic= N. America
2. Neotropical= S. Amer
3. Ethiopian= Africa
4. Paleartic= Europe
5. Oriental= Asia
6. Austrailian
7. Antartica
T or F: migratory barriers are greater in the Eastern hemisphere than the Western hemisphere.
T or F: its harder for a bird to get from the Neartic to Neotropical.
3 Barriers
1. Climatic
2. Topographic
3. Oceanic
T or F: 50% of birds that die along migratory routes are adults.
When you fly south, it is for...
Climate, temp.
When you fly north, it is for...
Food, resources
Alfred Wallace wrote.....
The Malay Archiepelago
background level of extinction
average rate of species extinction over long stretches of time.
palontologist who said the background level was at "perhpas a few species per million years for most kinds of organism"
Paul Ehrlich
one of the grandfathers of conservation, current extinction rate of mammals and birds is 100 times the background level
Ed Wilson
estimates that the current loss of rainforest species is at least 1000 times above normal
article "Are We on the Verge of a Mass Extinction in Tropical Rain Forests?
Said, yes, the current events in extinction are probably the worst the world has ever seen