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78 Cards in this Set

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Ionic Bond
electrostatic bond that exists between 2 ions as the result of a transfer of electrons. ex. NaCl

-relatively weak in water
-rarely find ionic molecules, break into ions (electrolytes)
Covalent bond
-bond that exists between 2 atoms as the result of sharing electrons.
-nonpolar:equal sharing of electrons, maintain biological structure
-polar:unequal sharing of electrons (thus imparting a polarity to the resulting molecule)
Hydrogen bond
electrostatic attraction that exists between the positively charged hydrogens on a polar molecule and the negatively charged oxygen or nitrogens on the same or different polar molecule
cohsion
water molecules attract to anything polar
heat of vaporization
water resists evaporation
heat
measure of the rate of molecular motion
hydrophilic
attracted to water
hydrophobic
not attracted to water, can't dissovle
importance of hydrogen bonds
physical properties of H20 and solubility characteristics, structure of proteins, informational integrity of DNA
Inorganic
H2O, CO2, O2, electrolytes/ions, acids, base
Organic
C-H covalently bonded, macromolecules
-carbohydrates
-proteins
-nucleic acid
-lipids
Water
-Solvent
-metabolyte
-temperature stabilizer
-electrolytes (ions)
solvent
dissolves things that have polarity. vehicle for transport (lipids don't dissolve)
metabolyte
anything that enters a metabolic reaction
ex. H2O, CO2, O2
electrolytes
-Na+ :nerve impulse
-K+ : nerve impulse
-Ca+2: bones, calcium phosphate, muscle contraction
-PO4:bones,phospholipid, nucleic acid, ATP
-Fe: blood, hemoglobin = O2, coenzyme
-NO3: essential to plants for making a.a.
-Mg- cell respiration, chlorophyll
acid
proton donor (H+)
base
proton acceptor (remove H+ ions)
Carbohydrate (simple)
-CHO ratio is 2:1
-simple carbohydrates (sugars): pentose (5 carbon),hexose (6 carbon)-glucose,fructose,galactlose, disaccharide:made by 2 monosaccharides
Complex carbohydrates
-polysaccharides
-starch:plant, not all plant cells produce starch
-cellulose:plant, all plant cells produce cellulose
-glycogen
-chitin
Starch
-plant storage for glucose
-1000-20,000 glucose units
-alpha glycosidic linkage
cellulose
-structural component of cell walls
-enzyme puts it together if its in beta form
-linear model
-most abundant organic molecule in nature
glycogen
-animal storage molecule for glucose
-alpha link (short term)
-stored in liver, muscle tissue
-increase glucose stimulates beta cells which allows for release of insulin->liver glucose uptake->glycogen
-glucagon can target liver cells
-pancreatic beta cells make insulin
Chitin
important structural component of exoskeleton in arthropod
Proteins
-made inside cells
-protein is what makes a cell structurally and functionally what it is
-building blocks are amino acids (monopeptide)
-polypeptide
-has primary,secondary,teritiary,and quartinary structure
peptide linkage
holds amino acids together
primary structure
linear sequence of amino acids
secondary structure
-alpha helix, beta pleated sheet
-H bonds maintain the structure (not between radical groups)
teritiary structure
-bond between radical group
-H-bonds
-ionic bond
-disulfide bridge
-hydrophobic attraction
quartinary structure
2 or more polypeptide chains
final shape of proteins
tertiary or quartinary
enzyme
organic catalyst-speeds up reaction
enzymes are reaction specific
active site
region of enzyme that fits on substrate
chemical complimentary
"fits"
(charge, shape)
denaturation
breaking of bonds that will destroy secondary and teritiary structure
-heat
-acids
-bases
-alcohol
Protein function
-enzyme catalyst
-support (structural)(architectural)
-movement: microfilaments,myosin, actin
-defense: antibodies:specific proteins will latch onto disease causing agents
-transport:hemoglobin:produced in rbc, transports O2
-hormones
Nucleic acids
(polynucleotides) informational
gene
stretch of DNA that carries info of amino acid sequence
chromosomes
long DNA molecule with different segments containing info, many genes
gametes
sex cells
DNA
-deoxyribonucleic acid
-directs protein synthesis
-self-replication: transfer of hereditary info from cell to cell when they divide and from generation to generation.
-A,G,C,T
-double stranded-double helix
RNA
-ribonucleic acid
-carries out assembly of a.a.
-ribose
-A,G,C,U
-single strand
nucleotides
building block of DNA-pentose sugar, phosphate, nitrogenous base
complimentary nitrogenous base pairing
4 bases, 20 a.a.
Lipids
-insoluble in H2O
-soluble in one another
-nonpolar
-building block:acetic acid
1. triglycerides(3 FA chains)
2. phospholipids
3. steroids
saturated fat
fatty acid chain can't get more H+
unsaturated
double bonds (oils)
phospholipids
-2 fatty acid chains and a phosphate
-head:polar, tail:nonpolar
-structural component of all membranes
-phospholipid bilayer, fluid (flow)
steroids
-cholesterol:precursor for steroid hormones
-produced in adrenal cortex-glucocortoids-glucose metabolism (cortisol)
-mineralcorticoids- electrolye balance (aldosterone)
-gonads- testosterone, estrogen, progesterone
terpenes
chains with carbons attached-keratine
cell theory
-all living things are made up of 1 or more cells
-cell is the basic unit of structure and function in all living things
-all cells come from pre existing cells
cytoplasm
-cytosol: H2O,electrolytes, small organic solutes
-organelles: suspended in cytosol, complex organic structure and they serve a purpose (often surrounded by a membrane) vesicle
Prokaryotes
-bacteria
-lack a nucleus (nucleoid)-circular chromosomes (naked)
-lack any "free" membrane surrounded organelles
-cell wall-peptidoglycon
Eukaryotes
-possess a nucleus-complex linear chromosomes
-possess free membrane surrounded organelles
Plasma membrane
-phospholipid bilayer
-cholesterol:OH which sticks out to water.helps stabilize membrane
-proteins: integral proteins are built into the membrane
peripheral proteins are not built into the membrane but is attached to the integral protein.
Functions of membrane proteins
1. channels-serves as a passageway for the transport of molecules
2. carriers-grab a molecule and changes their shape to bring molecule to the other end
3.receptors
4.stabilizing membranes
5.glycoproteins & glycolipids act as surface markers which recognize cells
6.self-identity
7.cell adhesion
8.enzymes
Diffusion
random movement of molecules from an area of high concenration to an area of low concentration. small nonpolar molecules (O2, CO2) soluble in lipids and water
passive transport
requires kinetic engergy of motion. no cell energy expenditure. Ex. diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
osmosis
diffusion of H2O through a membrane
hypotonic
higher H2O concectration, lower solute outside of cell. contractile vacoule in cell emties out H2O
hypertonic
lower H2O, higher solute outside of cell
extracelluar fluid
water on the outside of the cell
facilitated diffusion
needs a carrier, doesn't reach dynamic equilibrium ex: sugar molecule just binds
active transport
requires cell work
-carriers (proteins)
-molecules moved against graddients
-energy-ATP
primary active transport
-ion pumps: Na+ K+ pump
-when a molecule is phosphorylated, it has more energy
secondary active transport
no energy required because there's a radient of Na+ going in
vesicular transport
-endocytosis:bringing big molecules in
-phagocytosis: cell eating (protein, starch)
-pinocytosis: cell drinking (dipeptides, disaccharides)
-receptor mediated: molecules bind to receptors and a vesicle forms.
Endomembrane system in eukaryotes
endoplasmic reticulum, rough ER, smooth ER, golgi apparatus, secretory vesicles, lysosomes, ribosomes
ribosomes
-protein factories
-rRNA
-ribosomal protein
-tRNA:attaches to a.a. from cytoplasm and brings to ribosomes
free ribosomes
synthesis of proteins to be used intracellularly except for proteins that are imbedded in a membrane
endoplasmic reticulum
system of channels and tubes, lumen (interior), rough ER has ribosomes attached
smooth ER
membranous tubes, lipid synthesis. liver cells contain smooth ER for detoxification
rough ER
more flattened vesicles that have ribosomes attached
golgi apparatus
-system of flattened vesicles that stack up on eachother
-modification of proteins
-cis face-receiving side
-trans face-maturing face
-sorting of proteins
-packaging of proteins
lysosomes
contain hydrolytic enzymes (acid hydrolases)
intracellular digestion
mitochondria
powerhouse of the cell
locomotor organelles
cilia & flagella, structurally and functionally analogous (same internal structure, same function, differ in degree)
cilia
numerous "short"
flagella
single, few, "long"