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107 Cards in this Set

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Cholesterol?
Steriod parent. we make plenty on our own, and it gives the plasma membrane flexibility.
What is LDL?
Low density lipoprotein. Its bad because if cholesterol hooks up with a LDL it sticks to the arteries.
What is HDL?
High Density Lipoprotein. Like sand paper it helps to clean arteries. You want to have the ratio of 1 HDL to 3 LDL.
What is PH?
The (-) log of the Hydrogen.
What is the stomach pH?
2 (Acidic)
What is the intestine pH?
8-9 (Basic)
What are the building blocks of proteins?
Amino Acids
What is a dimer?
Two of the same type. Ex- 2 amino acids hooked together.
Are all proteins polypeptides?
YES
Are all polypeptides proteins?
NO
What makes up the Primary Structure?
The #, type, and sequence. Every protein at the minimum will have primary and secondary structures.
What makes up the secondary structure?
Repelling or attracting is what forms the second structure. Secondary structures take on alpha helix and beta pleated sheet structures.
What makes up the Tertiary structure?
Side chains that are non polypeptides. Side chains can be lipids, sugars, etc.
What makes up the Quatenary structure?
The R groups themselves are polypeptides, that can have primary, secondary, and tertiary structures.
What is an enzyme?
Biological catalyst. All enzymes are proteins.
What are the properties of Enzymes?
1) The are proteins
2) are not consumed in the reaction they cataylize.
3) Reduce the energy of activation. An enzyme cannot make a reaction occur that isn't supposed to occur.
4) Form and Fuction- high specificity. (Very specific about what they do)
What is the smallest living unit?
The cell
What is the most efficient thing in the world?
A healthy living cell
What is prokayotic?
Bacteria is the only life that occupies it. It doesnt have a nucleus, no organells, no nucleus, does have cytoplasm, ribosomes, and DNA.
What is Eukaryotic?
All others (with nucleus). It is larger, has organelles and ribosomes.
What is cytoplasm?
Fluid component of the cell and everything suspended or disolved in it. ( Not an organelle).
What is cytosol?
Fluid component of cytoplasm
What is the cytoskeleton?
Microtubules and filaments. It helps support and give shape to cell.
What is the Plasma Membrane?
Envelope that surrounds and defines it limitations and boundaries. Everything including the plasma membrane is a cell. It controls what enters and exits the cell.
How many layers doe the plasma membrane have?
Its a bilayered lipid. The outside is polar and hydrophillic. The inside are the fatty acids and they are nonpolar and hydrophobic. and the outside layer are phosphates and they are polary and hydrophillic.
What are peripheral proteins?
Very loosly attached. the are extrensic on the outside of the cell.
What are Integral protiens?
They are embedded into the membrane. They are intrensic.
What is a transmembrane?
An intrenic protein that goes all the way through the membrane.
What is Active?
The cell is using cell energy
What is passive?
No cell energy
What is osmosis?
Has a membrane and its moving water
What is osmolarity?
The membrane is permeable to the water but not to the salt.
Tonicity?
The membrane is permeable to the water but not to the salt.
What is hypotonic?
Lower amount of concentrations
What is hypertonic?
Higher concentration
What is facilitative diffuion?
We have a molecule that can enter the cell but a molecule that can't enter, but the cell needs it. However, molecule A becomes the facilitator and brings B into the cell.
What is phagocytosis?
Cell eating
What is pinocytosis?
Cell drinking
What is ion transport?
its a way of using protein to transport ions.
What is Simport System?
Pumps either in or out, but not in both directions.
Antiport?
Can pump in either direction but not at the same time.
What is the nucleus?
Surrounded by a membrane, called a nuclear membrane or nuclear envelope. Has relatively large permanent pores going into the membrane. We have these pores so that RNA and proteins can enter and leave. Its referred to as the brain.
What is inside the nucleus?
Chromatin
What is Chromatin?
Greyish color in nucleus, It has DNA, RNA, protien and nucleosomes.
Is the nucleus a bilayer?
YES
What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum?
Formed from outer membrane of the nucleus.
What is the golgi?
Formed from outer membrane of the nucleus. Its referred to as the quality control. The proteins move through the golgi and eventually it emerges outside the golgi and forms its own vesicules and then is sent to plasma membrane.
What is the nucleolus composed of?
RNA and protein (high concentration)
What is the Rough ER?
When ribosomes are attached the the endoplasmic reticulum.
What is the Smooth ER?
When there are no ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.
Where are proteins assembled?
At the ribosome
What are ribosomes?
The site of protein synthesis.
What is posttranslation?
It adjusts to the need of that cell very rapidly.
What time of day is the growth hormone active?
at night while you sleep.
What time of days is insuline active?
During the day.
What are lysomes?
Single membrane bound structure. They contain hydrolyic enzymes and its how we digest things. It does this intracellular. They bring in glucose, proteins and amino acids.
What are polysomes?
Have membrane, have oxydative enzymes, digest or detoxyfy the body and cell.
What does the Mitochondria do?
Has a membrane, Is a bilayer. Has its own DNA, can reproduce, they carry out metabolic activities. Its a small living thing.
What is mitosis?
Most cells divide by mitosis. autosomes (simple cell division). starts with 46 chromosomes, and ends with 46 chromosomes.
What is meiosis?
Germ cells (Sperm and egg) Reduction diviion. Start with 46 end with 23.
What is metabolism?
Is the sum of all the energy processing of your cells in your body.
What is catabolic?
Chemical reactions that are used to extract energy. Some energy is lost as heat. (Energy out of the system)
What is anabolic?
Adding energy to the system. How we build things. We get energy from catabolic reactions to fuel anabolic reactions.
What are the steps to the cell cycle?
Interphase(Most of cell life, not a stage of mitosis.)
G1-it grows, prepares the cell to go on to s phase.
s phase- Replicate DNA
G2-makes final preparation for cell division.
What is metaphase?
Chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate or equitorial plate, and the centrioles move to opposite side of cell.
where does a chomatid join?
Centromere
What is a kinetochore?
Its a thing. Its two belts around each two chromatids but they touch each other.
What is Anaphase?
When the chromatids pull part on opposite sides of the cell. until it forms a plasma membrane and/or if we see the formation of a new nuclear envelope.
What is Telophase?
When the cell breaks apart you have two cells in G1 and starts over. It has two daughter cells half the size of the original cell.
What are tissues?
A group of like cells performing a common function.
Whats an organ?
When we organize different types of tissue.
Whats an organ system?
Organize a group of organs.
What does epithelial tissue do?
Lines the outside of skin, only part of it though. It can line the inside too. Depending on where you are in the body this will be a different type of epithelial tissue.
What is simple epithilial?
Single layer. One cell layer thick.
What is simple squamous epithilial?
One cell layer thick and flat. These line the inside of blood vessels.
What is stratified squamous epithelial?
An example is the skin. The outer part of the skin is mostly stratified squamous epithelial.
What is cuboidal epithelial?
These are usually simple type of tissue (Single layer). You find these in the kidneys.
What is columnar epithelial?
Column shaped. Have hair-like projections called cilia. They are found in Respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts. Can be simple (single layer) with cilia. The are occasionally stratified (stacked). They are sometimes pseudostratified- they look stacked but there not.
What is pseudostratified?
Single layer. Alot of column cells are packed into a tiny little space and the get pushed out of shape. This dishaped the nuclei and makes it appear like their in different locations and that can give the impression that your looking at stratified as opposed to a single layer.
What do goblet cells produce?
actively produce mucous. The are columbar cells.
Where do you find transitional tissues?
In urinary bladder, and ureters.
What are the 3 types of muscles?
Skeletal, Smooth, and cardiac
What is skeletal muscle?
muscle that moves skeleton. Its voluntary because we tell it what to do. (have control over it) The nuclei are found around the border instead of middle. The muscle has striations. It contains myofibers and it can have up to 12 nuclei. There is no branching in skeletal muscle.
What is smooth muscle?
Its involuntary. Find in blood vessels, digestive tract, and reproductive tract. Single cells have single nucleus. When they are relaxed they have a swirly look. Very limited control over it.
What is cardiac muscle?
Has properties simliar to skeletal and smooth. Myofibers are striated but they only have 1 nucleus. The nucleus is not located on the border. A single myofiber can branch. Its involuntary.
What is the hypodermis?
Mostly fat. It becomes subcutaneous.It can weigh up to 20 lbs depending on whether your a male or female. Part of the integumentary system.
What does the nerve/neurological do?
Its a nueron. It conducts impulses. Nuerons communicate the best. The are postmitotic.
What is neuroglia?
Its called glial. They support cells, you can have from 10 neurons to a cell up to 100 to every cell.
What can every cell in the body do?
Receive impulses, produce impulses, and process impulses. But neurons do this the best.
What is connective tissue?
Have greatest degree of variation. Bone is a connective tissue, and also blood, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. Cellulite is also connective tissue.
What are fibroblasts?
Connective tissue. Its an embryonic cell source that all connective tissue comes from.
What is skin?
Its an system and an organ. Weighs about 7ibs. largest part of the body. It is made up of different organs.
What are the 3 parts of the skin?
Epidermis, Dermis, Hypodermis.
What is the epidermis?
Stratified squamous epithelium. No capillaries, or blood vessles. No blood supple at all. The bottom layer is called the stratum germinatium (one cell layer thick)The next layer up is the stratum spinosum. This is called the stress layer.The next layer is the stratum granulsome gets a grainy flackey appearance. The top layer is the stratum corneum. (dead cells) have alot of keratin. This layer is thick.
What is keratin?
gives a slightly orange pigment to the skin. Helps water proof and strengthen.It forms hair and nails. Its made when the cells get stressed and die.
Where do you find melanocytes?
In the low stratum spinosum. They produce melonine-dark pigment of the body. its used to protect skin.
What are UV rays?
Causes skin to age more rapidly. Nothing harms the skin more than UV rays.
What are hair follicles?
have sebaceous glands that produce an oil called sebum which adds another layer of lubrication to the skin.
What are suderiferous glands?
sweat glands. take on a ropy look. They spread through out the epidermal layer.
What classifies a 1st degree burn?
affects only the epidermis layer.
What classifies a 2nd degree burn?
Affect the dermis layer
What classifies a 3rd degree burn?
Affects the hypodermis.
What is the # 1 killer?
Fluid loss.
What is the # 2 killer?
Infection.
What classifies a 4th degree burn?
If its in the muscle or bone.
What part of the body is resistant to burns?
the mouth.
What are the rule of nines?
1)The head 9% each (4 1/2% front, 4 1/% back)
2)The arms 9% each (4 1/2% front, 4 1/2% back)
3)Trunk (shoulders down)36 each (18% front, 18% back)
4)Legs 18 each( 9% front, 9% back)
5)Groin is 1%