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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What's a neurocrine? What are neurocrine subtypes?
A neurocrine is a chemical signal secreted by a neuron. Subtypes are neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neurohormones.
What activities do cytokines control?
Cell development, cell differentiation, and the immune response.
How do cytokines differ from hormones?
1. Act on broader spectrum of target cells.
2. Not produced by specialized cells or glands.
3. Made on demand.
What is signal amplification?
Signal amplification is the process of turning one signal molecule into multiple second messenger molecules. Involves an amplifier enzyme.
What do protein kinases do? What enzymes reverse this action?
Protein kinases transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein. Protein phosphatases carry out dephosphorylation.
What gases act as signal molecules?
NO and CO
What are the two major groups of arachidonic acid-derived paracrines?
Leukotrienes and Prostanoids (include prostaglandins and thromboxanes)
What molecules are produced by lipoxygenase?
What molecules are produced by cyclooxygenase (COX)?
Prostaglandins and Thromboxanes
How is down-regulation accomplished?
Decreasing receptor numbers or binding affinity (ex: phosphorylation)
What is a hormone?
A hormone is a chemical secreted by a cell or group of cells into the blood for transport to a distant target, where ti exerts its effect at very low concentrations.
Name the main locations of hormone secretion.
1)Pineal Gland 2)Hypothalamus 3)Posterior Pituitary 4)Anterior Pituitary 5)Thyroid 6)Parathyroid 7)Thymus 8)Heart 9)Liver 10)Stomach and small intestine 11)Pancreas 12)Adrenal cortex 13)Adrenal medulla 14)Kidney 15)Skin 16)Testes 17)Ovaries 18)Adipose tissue 19)Placenta
What are the five types of epithelial cells?
1)protective 2)secretory 3)transport 4)exchange 5)cilliated