Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/69

Click to flip

69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Voltage-gated K+ channel
4 S.U.(6 MSD) S1-S6
S4 voltage sensor (+) opens during depolarization
S5-S6 loop, lines pore-selectivity filter
Activates Protein Kinase C
Ca+,DAG
PLC
PLC = Phospholipase C; splits lipids, cleaves PIP2 into DAG and IP3
synaptotagmin
Binds Calcium and stimulates exocytosis of vesicle contents (example of V-SNARE), Calcium sensor
repolarization of AP
1) inactivation of voltage-gated Na+ channels
2) Opening of delayed rectifiers – voltage-gated K+ channels
NMDA
glutamate
4 S.U. 3 MSD M1,M3,M4
M2 = p-loop (half-way thr. membrane)
Mg++ block (depo. removes)
Na+,K+,Ca++
Na+ more depo. adds late EPSP
PKA
protein kinase A
2 reg. S.U. 2 inactive catalytic S.U.
4 cAMP mol. (2 each) to activate
targets spec. AA on proteins and phos. to modify(in. or de. activity)
cAMP
second messenger produced by enzyme adenyl cyclase
metabotropic
receptor that
kinesin
molecular motor responsible for movement of vesicles to nerve terminal, walks on microtubules
long range
vs.
short range
cues for axon
netrins = l.r.
semaphorins = s.r.
? = s.r.
CNS macroglia
astrocytes, oligodendrocytes
principle of dynamic polariztion
uni-directional flow (AP)
spines
knobby appendage on dendrite
netrin
chemoattractive element for axon extension, l.r.
cadherins
cell surface protein? - grow this way
ephrin
cell surface protein? - grow away
semaphorin
chemorepulsive element for axon extension, s.r.
Roger Sperry
frog eye experiment - axonal pathfinding
Na/K Pump
Uses transmembrane proteins
ATP dependent
2 K+ in/ 3 Na+ out
restores [] gradient
microglia
immune system derived, role in infection and injury
oligodendrocyte
myelinate axons of the CNS. Also support the neuronal cell body in the gray matter - multiple axons
schwann cells
myelinate axons of the PNS - single axons
astrocyte
Support role
Role in blood brain barrier
May bring nutrients to neurons
Maintain proper ion balance
axonal pathfinding
1) ECM adhesion - Collagen, Laminins
2) cell surface adhesion
3) fasiculation (pioneer neuron) - cadherin
4) chemoattraction - netrins
5) contact inhibition
6) chemorepulsion - semaphorins
Chemotropism
movement caused by chemical factors. Long-range signals are soluble factors released by intermediate targets
Voltage-gated Na+ channel
4 S.U. 6 MSD
S1?-S6
S5-S6 selectivity pore
S4 voltage sensor
Voltage-gated Ca++ channel
4 S.U. 6 MSD
S1?-S6
S5-S6 selectivity pore
S4 voltage sensor
equation
V=IR
TTX, TEA
V-d Na+, V-d K+
gap junction
made up of connexins
v-SNARE
vesicle-SNARE, VAMP
t-SNARE
transmembrane-SNARE, syntaxin + SNAP-25
SNARE hypothesis
v+tSNARES hold vesicle to presynaptic membrane, held until Ca++ influx signals release, two cytoplasmic proteins SNAP and NSF hydrolyze ATP to uncouple
SNARE uncoupler
SNAP and NSF
ionotropic
direct ion channel gating
AMPA, NMDA
metabotropic
G-protein meditated indirect ion channel gating
noradrenergic system
Locus Coeruleus
‘vigilance and responsiveness to unexpected stimuli’
Serotonergic System
Raphe Nuclei
‘sleep/waking, cortical responsiveness’
Dopaminergic cell groups
A9 Substantia Nigra
A10 Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)

‘Emotion, Memory Storage’ (mostly reward based memory)
Cholinergic System
Basal Forebrain
‘sleep/wake cycle, learning’
dermatome
The area of skin innervated by a single dorsal root
Meissner's corpuscle
superficial
small RF
R.A.
Merkel cell
superficial
small RF
S.A.
Pacinian corpuscle
deep
large RF
R.A.
Ruffini ending
deep
large RF
S.A.
spectrin
protein that links cytoskeleton to stretch sensitive cation channels(Na+, Ca++) which influx depo. and produce receptor potential
muscle spindle
in skeletal muscle signals muscle length and the speed at which the muscle is stretched
rhodopsin
photopigment in the outer segments of both photoreceptors, changes config. w/ light
made up of protein opsin, and light sens. retinal in 7 MSD
Photoelectric transduction (light voltage change)
-Stimulation of the chromophore by light
-reduces the concentration of cGMP in the cytoplasm
-hyperpolarizes photoreceptor by closing cation channels
-decreases transmitter released by the photoreceptor
primary somatic sensory cortex
S1
Brodmann's 1,2,3a,3b
posterior parietal cortex
Brodmann's 5,7
secondary somatic sensory cortex
S2
primary visual cortex
area 17
LGN term. in layer 4 mostly
spiny stellate, pyramidal w/ spines = ex.
smooth stellate = in.
M cells
ventral 1,2 LGN
luminance contrast
temporal frequency
P cells
dorsal 3,4,5,6 LGN
color contrast
spatial frequency
mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR)
signals from it activate spinal locomotor system relayed via neurons in the medial reticular formation (MRF)
superior colliculus
contributes to visually guided eye movements
pretectal area
important for pupillary reflexes
lateral geniculate nucleus
and from there to the visual cortex, processes visual information for perception
glutamate
main ex. NT
Na+,K+,Ca++
GABA
main in. ionotropic NT, or glycine
Cl-
non-NMDA
low g
early EPSP
NMDA
high g
late EPSP
req. glycine as cof.
Mg++ block
medial descending pathway
posture- visual, vestibular, somatosensory
-vestibulo spinal(m,l)
-reticulo spinal(m.l)
-tectospinal
lateral descending pathway
distal limbs- goal directed
-rubrospinal(cortico in humans)
primary motor cortex
brodmann 4
premotor cortex
brodmann 6
sarcoplasmic reticulum
in sarcolemma, release Ca++