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20 Cards in this Set

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Excess phosphorus
causes eutrophication
Biotechnology
=use or alteration of cells/molecules for specific purposes
Transgenic organisms
plant/animal with genetic change in each cell (usually inserting foreign gene)
Recombinant DNA
adding foriegn genes to cells
Gene targeting
moves a gene to a particular location
Transgenic sheep
produce human protein alpha1-antitrypsin.
Treat deficiency which causes damage to lungs/liver
GMO primates
uesless "marker" gene was inserted into first GMO monkey
Shows promise for human gene therapy
DNA toolbox
Restriction enzymes
DNA Ligase
Vectors
Recipient cells
Restriction enzymes
=cut DNA at specific locations

EcoR1 cuts GAATTC
(CTTAAG)
DNA ligase
attaches 2 pieces of DNA together
Vectors
=carry DNA to new location
plasmids: circular DNA from bacteria
Bacteriophages: viruses that infect bacteria
retroviruses: RNA viruses
artificial chromosomes
Recipient cells
cells to recieve the DNA
Recombinant DNA
genomic library: collection of cells that contain entire genome
complementary DNA library: collection of protein-encoding genes
Recombinant DNA procedure
1.isolate gene of interest
2.insert DNA into recipient cells
3.select cells that contain gene of interest
4.clone cells that contain the gene of interest
5.stimulate expression of gene and collect protein product
recombinant DNA tech.
ex. human insulin
Transgenic organisms
new traits introduced to organism
Requires moving DNA into cell
-plants: gene guns, Ti plasmid, viruses
-animals: chemicals that open membrane, liposomes, electricity, injections
Gene Targeting
gene exchanges places w/ its counterpart on host cell's chromosome.
-knockouts: remove a gene and see what happens w/ phenotype
-knockins: add gene
Bioremediation
use of an organism's engineered abilities to remove toxins from enviornment
phytoremediation
pick up heavy metals from soils
Problems w/ release of GMOs
Economic: lost productivity
Ecological: potentially damaging
Evolutionary