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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Immune System
Protects body from harmful organisms
Identifies "self" (normal healthy tissue) from "non-self" (something thats not supposed to be there)
Antigens v. Antibodies
Antigens=cell surface proteins or carbohydrates that trigger an immune response
Antibodies= proteins that attach to antigens and signal destruction
parts of immune system
Large scale: organ/tissue systems
Lymphatics: network of vessels
Lymph nodes,spleen,thymus: mature and process lymphocytes
Bone Marrow: stem cells that give rise to millions of new lymphocytes every day
Small scale
=white blood cells
Macrophages= scavenger cells that alert immune system by binding antigens
Lymphoctyes= includes T and B cells
1st line of defense
Physical barrier to infection (protection and prevention)
-nose and ear hairs
-stomach acid
-Mucous membranes
-Cilia in respiratory tract
2nd line of defense
Innate Immune Response (generalized)
when physical barrier breached, activated w/in minutes
Inflammation: redness, swelling, heat and pain-> sends in "garbage disposal" cells
can prevent infection
2nd line of defense systems
Complement system: plasma proteins that destroy bacteria and viruses, release histamine (assists inflammation)
Collectins: help detect non-self by attaching to sugars on membranes around bacteria, viruses, and yeasts
Interferons: attract macrophages to virus infected cells (macrophages will eat bacteria, etc)
Interleukins: cause fever
3rd line of defense
Adaptive Immune system (specific)
Days to initiate
B and T cells
Diverse: attacks different pathogens
Specific: recognizes invaders
Memory: 2nd response faster and stronger
Humoral Immune Response
Directed by B cell that secrete antibodies into blood stream
1.antigen-presenting macrophage acativates T cell
2.T cell contacts B cell w/ compatible surface receptors
3.specific B cell type proliferates (divide and conquer)
4.B cell becomes active against bacteria, viruses, and toxins
B cell proliferation
B cells can produce antibodies specific to anitgens
Proliferating B cell develops into:
-Plasma cells: antibody factories
-Memory cells: activated during 2nd infection; stronger, specific 2nd time around
Cellular Immune Response
Directed by T cells that travel to site of infection
-helps recognize self vs. non-self
-T cells produce cytokines and activate other cells
-active against infected tissue and cells
-fungi,protozoe, and worms
Cellular Immune Reponse + cells
Helper T cells (CD4): recognize non-self antigens, stimulate B cells to produce antibodies, release cytokines, activate cytotoxic T cells

Cytotoxic T cells (CD8): attack/kill infected and cancer cells (killer T cells)
how does immune system recognize self from non-self?
characteristics of cell surface
Proteins and carbohydrates on surface of cells provide cell identity
ABO Blood groups
Type O = universal donor
Type AB= universal recipient
Rh Factor
Rh= protein on surface of red blood cells determined by 3 different genes (C, D, E)
Rh+ have protein
Rh- lack prtein

problem in pregnancy if a Rh- woman has a Rh+ child. (antibodies will attack red blood cells of fetus)
Major Histocompatibility Complex
~70 genes, some code for cell surface molecules
-proteins attach to sugars (glycoprotein)that sticks up from cell surface
-glycoproteins can attach to bacterial and viral proteins
-involved in antigen processing and presentation

reponsible for self v.non-self identities
Inherited Immune Deficiencies
=genes that code for immune reponse proteins are defective; diminished ability to defend against infection.
SCID(severe combined immune deficiencies) not make B cells or not make B and T cells... bubble boy
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
caused by HIV virus
Infects macrophages, helper T cells, and cytotoxic T cells
Attaches to protein on surface (CD4 and CCR5)
Makes person vulnerable to infection and cancer
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune system produces antibodies that attack body (self)
Viral infection, incorrect selection for T cells, or similarity b/w an antigen and a cell surface molecule
Immune system response to nonharmful substance
large environmental componenet
150 million ppl worldwide
180,000 deaths/year
high economic costs
Helping the Immune system
Vaccines: an inactive or partial pathogen elicits an immune response. B cells produce antibodies that give the body resistence
First was against smallpox