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11 Cards in this Set

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Globin Chain Switching
Hemogobin carries oxygen, made of 4 subunits; subunits differ in embryo, fetus, and adult
Embryo: epsilon and zeta
Fetus: gamma and alpha
Adult: alpha and beta
Blood plasma composition
Plasma contains ~40,000 different types of proteins
Plasma protein profile changes when sick
Blood tests look for levels of proteins taht indicate disease
Proteomics
Study of function of all expressed proteins
Human genome: ~30,000 genes and ~200,000 proteins.
Only 1.5% of base pairs code for proteins
Exon shuffling
Exons can be shuffled into unique arrangements to produce different proteins
Non-coding RNAs
tRNAs- o.1% of human genome
rRNAs
snoRNAs
XistRNA
Pseudogenes- transcribed into RNA, but not translated into protein
Repeats
Transposons= "jumping genes", mobile genetic elements, DNA can move around the genome
Telomere regions
Histone Code
Histones= proteins around which DNA entwines; expose DNA to allow transcription
Chromatin remodeling
3 major groups that bind to histones: acetyl groups, methyl groups, phosphate groups.
RNA Interference
8% of genes transcribed from both strands of DNA, produces "small interfering RNA".
siRNA finds/binds mRNA-> blocks translation (nucleus adds methyl to histones)
Proteins orchestrate RNA interference
Dicer
=enzyme that cuts double-stranded RNA into short segments
RISC
protein complex that binds RNA pieces and unwinds- allows binding with mRNA