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11 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Globin Chain Switching
Hemogobin carries oxygen, made of 4 subunits; subunits differ in embryo, fetus, and adult
Embryo: epsilon and zeta
Fetus: gamma and alpha
Adult: alpha and beta
Blood plasma composition
Plasma contains ~40,000 different types of proteins
Plasma protein profile changes when sick
Blood tests look for levels of proteins taht indicate disease
Study of function of all expressed proteins
Human genome: ~30,000 genes and ~200,000 proteins.
Only 1.5% of base pairs code for proteins
Exon shuffling
Exons can be shuffled into unique arrangements to produce different proteins
Non-coding RNAs
tRNAs- o.1% of human genome
Pseudogenes- transcribed into RNA, but not translated into protein
Transposons= "jumping genes", mobile genetic elements, DNA can move around the genome
Telomere regions
Histone Code
Histones= proteins around which DNA entwines; expose DNA to allow transcription
Chromatin remodeling
3 major groups that bind to histones: acetyl groups, methyl groups, phosphate groups.
RNA Interference
8% of genes transcribed from both strands of DNA, produces "small interfering RNA".
siRNA finds/binds mRNA-> blocks translation (nucleus adds methyl to histones)
Proteins orchestrate RNA interference
=enzyme that cuts double-stranded RNA into short segments
protein complex that binds RNA pieces and unwinds- allows binding with mRNA