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124 Cards in this Set

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You first start studying an endocrine gland by removing it from an experimental animal. Describe the possible effects of such a removal.
Castration<------>parathyroid
no effect death
you remove an endocrine organ, see what happens, and then try to overcome that effect. what do you use to try to do that?
inject an extract from gland, if you're able to purify it, then you're able to purify the hormone.
"Hypo" is the prefix for the syndrome when the amount of hormone is _______. "Hyper" is the prefix when the amount of hormone is ______.
too low, too high
Name one group of hormones which could not be discovered by the classical removal-observe-inject technique.
Releasing factors from the hypothalamus
Name two releasing factors andtheir immediate effect only on pituitary hormones.
ACTH RF--causes the release of ACTH
TSH RF--causes release of TSH
Name one inhibiting factor from the hypothalamus. Why is it so called?
prolactin IF, inhibits prolactin releasing factor
If the pituitary is underfunctioning, what is the major effect, and what hormone (or lack of it) is involved?
dwarfism, because you produce too little growth factor
Name two hormones of the anterior lobe of the pituitary and their immediate effect on the appropriate endocrine gland.
TSH--causes thyroid to release thyroxin
ACTH--causes adrenals to release cortisol
Name two hormones stored in the posterior lobe of the pituitary, and briefly describe what they do.
ADH--controls water reabsorption in kidney
Oxytosin--causes smooth muscle contraction in the uterus
If the pituitary is overfunctioning, what is the major effect, and what causes it?
produce too much growth hormone, gigantism
Acromegaly is a very common syndrome seen in older people. What is its cause?
continued slow production of growth hormone
Hormones are divided into two major groups. Name them and give a characteristic feature of each one.
peptide--binds to receptor and activates second messanger
Steroid--acts on cell DNA
What is the second messanger?
cyclic AMP, made in response to peptide hormone
A peptide hormone switches on the second messagner. How, then, is the specificity characteristic of that hormone maintained?
hormones have specific receptors which aren't present in all cells
What does the second messanger do to the cell?
activates inactive proteins already present in cells and has specific effects characteristic of specific hormones
A steroid hormone enters the cell. In brief and general terms, what happens next?
interacts with receptor in cell and activates DNA sequence to make proteins
The classical example of endocrine study is the male reproductive system. What "advantages" accrue from carrying out the typical procedure for the study of endocrine organs in man and animal?
Man--unable to produce sperm, safe attendant for women b/c they have low libido
Animal--b/c animals become more placid, don't fight
Removal of the characteristically male endocrine organ can be reversed by an extract of the testes, containing _____.
Testosterone
What environmental aspect is vital for the production of viable sperm?
temperature must be below body temperature
Below a certain quite large number of sperm per ejaculate, a male is essentially sterile. Give two theories as to why this is so.
1. because sperm have hyaluronidase (an enzyme) to digest the first layer of the egg
2. survival of the fittest
Name two vital funcitons of testosterone
1. maturation of sperm
2. growth and development of reproductive organs
Name two 'secondary sexual characteristics' affected by testosterone.
1. deepening of voice
2. growth of body hair
Semen is made up of three constituents. Name them.
1. sperm
2. seminal vesicle fluid
3. prostate fluid
A sperm may live for 24 hours, an egg for 72 hours. calculate the period over which an egg can be fertilzed--showing your calculation.
Sperm Egg Sperm
<----><--------><----->
1 day 3 days 1 day=4 days
There are three kinds of tears. Name them and describe what they do.
continuous--keep eyes wet throughout the day
reflex--wash away irritants
psychogenic--wash away hormones like endorphins
Lutenizing hormone level in males is controlled by _____ produced by the _____.
testosterone, testes
The cells of Sertoli are affected by what hormone from the pituitary?
FSH
And what that hormone from the cells of Sertoli does is to aid in the formation of _____________.
sperm by facilitating testosterone entry into support cells.
The formation and accumulation of sperm induces the production of an inhibitory hormone called _____.
inhibin
Inhibin is a testicular hormone whos mode of action is to affect the production of ______.
FSH
The advantage of inhibin as a male contraceptive would be that it would specifically affect just one part of the system. Why would that be an advantage?
leaves rest of system intact, so male still produces testosterone, maintains libido and secondary sex characteristics
Another chemical compound leaves much of the male reproductive system intact. What is its name, and what does it affect?
gossypol, makes sperm unable to swim as well
What is a simple explanation for menopause in women?
decrease in estrogen
Primary follicles develop into ______ and then, under the influence of LH, that body changes into the ______.
Graafian follicles, Corpus luteum
The succession of hormones affecting the endometruim is:
1st: estrogen, 2nd: progesterone
FSH derives its name from female reproductive activities. What is its full name and what does it do?
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
initiates growth of primary follicles into Graafian follicles, which produce estrogen
LH derives its name from female reproductive activities. What is its name and what does it do?
Lutenizing Hormone, induces ovulation and causes changes of the Graafian follicle, which become the corpus luteum
The developing oocyte may produce two hormones which affect FSH production. Their names and individual effects are:
inhibin--inhibits FSH
activin--stimulates FSH
A drastic way to prevent reproductive cells from interacting is called _____ in males, and _______ in females.
vasectomy, tubal ligation
Outline two methods of 'contraception' which don't prevent male and female cells from interacting.
IUD--sponge containing prostaglandins
mornding after pill--maintains high level of estrogen, which prevents surge of LH
What is the function of the pill in preventing conception?
prevents egg from implanting itself
What are the usual constituents of the pill and how are they delivered in the combination and sequential modes?
Constituents--estrogen and progesterone analogs
Combination--pill has both, taken over 28 days
Sequential--pills have estrogen for first 14 days, and both for last 14 days
Name two reasonable possibilities for contraception in the future.
Gossypol, inhibin
Give a short description of the disorder of the female reproductive organs called primary and secondary amenorrhea.
Primary--never had a period and ovaries are nonfunctioning
Secondary--transient absence of menstrual cycle
Give a short description of the disorder of the female reproductive organs called dysmenorrhea. What is believed to be the reason for it?
Very painful mentruation, overproduction of prostaglandins
Lutenizing hormone level in males is controlled by _____ produced by the _____.
testosterone, testes
The cells of Sertoli are affected by what hormone from the pituitary?
FSH
And what that hormone from the cells of Sertoli does is to aid in the formation of _____________.
sperm by facilitating testosterone entry into support cells.
The formation and accumulation of sperm induces the production of an inhibitory hormone called _____.
inhibin
Inhibin is a testicular hormone whose mode of action is to affect the production of ______.
FSH
The advantage of inhibin as a male contraceptive would be that it would specifically affect just one part of the system. Why would that be an advantage?
leaves rest of system intact, so male still produces testosterone, maintains libido and secondary sex characteristics
Another chemical compound leaves much of the male reproductive system intact. What is its name, and what does it affect?
gossypol, makes sperm unable to swim as well
What is a simple explanation for menopause in women?
decrease in estrogen
Primary follicles develop into ______ and then, under the influence of LH, that body changes into the ______.
Graafian follicles, Corpus luteum
The succession of hormones affecting the endometrium is:
1st: estrogen, 2nd: progesterone
FSH derives its name from female reproductive activities. What is its full name and what does it do?
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
initiates growth of primary follicles into Graafian follicles, which produce estrogen
LH derives its name from female reproductive activities. What is its name and what does it do?
Lutenizing Hormone, induces ovulation and causes changes to the Graafian follices, which become the corpus luteum
The developing oocyte may produce two hormones which affect FSH production. Their names and individual effects are:
Inhibin: inhibits FSH
Activin: stimulates FSH
A drastic way to prevent reproductive cells from interacting is called ______ in males, and ______ in females.
vasectomy, tubal ligation
Outline two methods of contraception which don't prevent male and female reproductive cells from interacting.
IUD--sponge containing prostaglandins
Morning after pill--maintains high levels of estrogen, which prevents a surge of LH
What is the major function of the pill in preventing contraception?
prevents egg from implanting itself
What are the usual constituents of the pill and how are they delivered in the combination and sequential modes?
Constituents--estrogen and progesterone analogs
Combination--pill has both and is taken over 28 days
Sequential--pills have estrogen for 1st 14 day and both for last 14 days
Name two reasonable possibilities for contraception in the future.
gossypol, inhibin
Give a short description of the disorder of the female reproductive organs called primary and secondary amenorrhea.
Primary--never had a period and ovaries are nonfunctioning
Secondary--transient absence of menstrual cycle
Give a short description of dysmenorrhea. What is believed to be the reason for it?
very painful menstruation, overproduction of prostaglandins
What is endometriosis, why is it a problem, and how would you treat it?
When endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus. At menstruation it sloughs off and causes bleeding in the abdominal cavity. Treated by taking the pill to maintain tissue
Endometrial tissue outside the uterus can result in the condition known as _______ and may be controlled by what method?
endometriosis, taking the pill
Name two symptoms of PMS.
irritability, water weight gain
At what time in her life is a woman most susceptible to breast cancer, and why?
after menopause, because estrogen levels drop
What is the difference between the trophoblastic and placental phases of pregnancy?
Trophoblastic--corpus luteum is maintained and trophoblasts eat their way into endometrial tissue
Placental--when shared fetal and maternal tissue, nutrients pass from maternal circulatory system to fetal CS
What hormone is produced only during pregnancy?
chorionic gonadotrophin
When does chorionic gonadotrophin start to appear in a pregnant female?
6 weeks after contraception
Give one explanation why the fetus is expelled after 270 days.
uterus stops growing, but the fetus does not, so it starves. Hormone levels drop, causing contraction of the uterus
Name two effects of lactation on the reproductive organs of the female.
oxytocin--uterine contraction, milk ejection
prolactin--supresses FSH
name two different parts of the male reproductive system and explain the function of each.
Testes--produce sperm and testosterone
Seminal vesicles--feeds sperm
Name two different parts of the female reproductive system and explain the functions of each.
Ovaries--egg maturation occurs here, releases estrogen and progesterone
Fallopian tubes--where fertilization of the egg takes place
What is happening during puberty?
Male and female reproductive glands become functional
Explain the function of pubic hair.
traps pheremones
Name and explain briefly two disorders of the reproductive system in males or females
prostate cancer, amenorrhea
If a male rat is castrated one week after birth, then an ovary is implanted later in life, will that ovary show signs of activity?
No, because the crucial period of one week has passed and he is already a male. If it had been done immediately after birth, then he would be female and the ovary would function
Name two symptoms that you might expect to see if someone has myxedema.
Low BMR, sensitivity to cold, easily fatigued
Thyroglobulin is a thyroid protein containing a very special amino acid. THe name of that amino acid is _____.
Thyroxine (T4)
Triiodothymine is the name given to the active hormone of the thyroid gland. What is its relationship to thyroxine?
T4 is long acting, can be converted to T3 by loss of iodine.
What does T3 actually do?
Acts directly on genetic material to increase mitochondrial activity, which causes an increase in ATP
What is simple goiter and how can it be cured?
swelling in thyroid gland to grab on to iodine, give iodine in the diet
President and Mrs. Bush both had Graves disease. What was done to treat them, and what is their continuing need for treatment?
Have thryoid killed with large doses of radioactive iodine, treat for hypothyroidism by giving T4
Whta condition is associated with exopthalmia, and what is another symptom that is usually associated with this disease?
Hyperthyroidism, excitablity and high BMR
What effect does T3 or T4 have on the pituitary gland?
inhibits production of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)
What effect does T3 or T4 have on the hypothalamus?
inhibits TSH RF
How does the external environment affect the levels of T4 and T3?
Throug the feedback loop, T3 and 4 are set in hypothalamus, responding to external temperature; hot=less, cold=more
How are tumors of the thyroid gland most likely to arise?
accumulation of radioactive iodine, through foodchain or excessive x-rays
Tetany is a condition involving muscle spasms and eventually death. What ionic component of the blood will be low when this disease occurs?
calcium ion
A hormone will be low if an animal has tetany. The name of that hormone is ______.
parathormone
How does parathormone effect the activity if osteoclasts?
increases activity so bone dissolves and calcium increases in blood
An osteoblast is a bone cell whose activity is controlled by a hormone called ______.
calcitonin
How does calcitonin affect the activity of the osteoblast?
increases, causes a build up of bone and decrease of calcium in blood
Calcium blood level is carefully controlled by parathyroid hormone, but that blood level is also affected by a completely different hormone. That hormone is called _______.
Vitamin D
In the absence of Vitamin D, a person suffers from a disease called _______, common in Victorian times.
Rickets
Hyperthyroidism is a very common syndrome. Among what group of people is it usually found?
postmenopausal women
Parathormone is antagonized by a completely different hormone, namely a sex hormone. What is the result of changing levels of that hormone?
estrogen, as it decreases parathormone increases, so calcium is broken down from bones and they become weaker.
Parathormone level is controlled in a very simple manner. Diagram this control system
Parathormone <-----
----->Calcium in blood
The pancreas is an organ which does two completely different things. List what that involves.
Exocrine function--produce enzymes, bicarbonate for digestion
Endocrine function--insulin and glucagon (produced in islands of langerhans)
High blood sugar in associated with the disease commonly called ______.
diabetes
Sugar is found in the urine of a diabetic. This is because ________.
Sugar is not getting into body cells so it overflows into the urine
Incomplete metabolism of fat, in particular, in the diabetic leads to accumulation and elimination of a group of compounds with a fairly distinctive odor. These are called ________.
Ketone bodies
The rule for insulin production is that insulin tracks glucose. Explain what that means in real life and in terms of the control of insulin production.
Glucose and insulin levels fluctuate, each eventuallu returning to fasting rate
A crude extract of the pancreas raises blood sugar, the opposite of what you might expect. What is the explanation for this contradictory result?
extract contains a 2nd hormone called glucagon, which raises blood sugar
Glucagon raises blood sugar, insulin lowers it. Present an alternative theory to explain diabetes based on that finding.
diabetes could be due to excess glucagon, and not too little insulin
An alternative theory for diabetes is that it is caused by excess production of glucagon. How could you lower the amount of glucagon, using another hormone and how does this work?
Somatostatin, antagonizes glucagon, but is has lots of side effects
Diabetes may in some instances be associated with a virus infection early in life. Explain the connection.
Infection will destroy part of the beta cells in the islands of langerhans, and immune system thinks the cells are foreign and destroys them (autoimmune disease)
There is a genetic connection for diabetes. What will be the effect, in say, another 1000 years and why?
There will be a gradual increase in the number of diabetics because most diabetics live well past the reproductive age and pass it on to their children
Removal of the adrenal gland is fatal. Which part of the gland is responsible for this effect?
Cortex
The medulla of the adrenal gland arises embryologically from a tissue called the neural crest. Explain then what the medulla does.
produces adrenaline, prolonging action of sympathetic nervous system
The cortex of the adrenal produces testosterone. Explain why there is conspicuous evidence of that in a segment of the population.
In females, testosterone is overshadowed by estrogen before menopause. At menopause, when estrogen drops, there is an increase in masculinization
What is the stress hormone of the adrenal and how is it controlled?
Cortisol
Aldosterone is the most important hormone of the adrenal. What does it do, and what does characteristically wrong in its absence?
Necessary for reabsorption of sodium in kidney. Without it, the Sodium/potassium ratio is altered. Too much Potassium results in death
What characteristic symptoms are seen if the adrenal glands are underfunctioning?
weight loss, plasma volume decreases, darkening of cartiledge
Name one highly distinctive symptom associated with Cushing's disease.
moon-shaped face, masculinization
What is a circadian rhythym?
about a day (25 hrs.), fluctuation of different body components
The pineal gland produces melatonin. What is the major effect of this hormone, and how does that relate to the development of a human being?
imposes circadian rhythym, antagonizes sex hormones
Give the results of the following two experiments, along with a brief explanation.
Mouse + skin graft--
Mouse-Thymys + skin graft--
1. rejects because the body doesn't like anybody else
2. accepts because the thymus is required to mature T-cells
A hormone from the thymus gland is vital for the maturation of a group of white blood cells. What is the name of the hormone and what are the white blood cells called?
thymosin, T-cells
The AIDS virus attacks helper T-cells specifically. Give two properties of these cells which are thus affected by this infection.
1. increase number of macrophages and lymphokines
2. increase production of interferons
The immune system is delicately balanced to repel invaders, but not anything else. What type of T-cell is specifically involved in the latter function, and what happens if that mechanism goes awry?
T-cell type: supressor T-cells
Consequence: autoimmune disease