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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Land plants arose during the _____.
The diploid generation of the plant life cycle always _____.
produces spores
Bryophytes are small because __________.
they are avascular
The diploid sporophyte stage is dominant in the life cycle of all of the following EXCEPT _____.
a moss
In contrast to bryophytes, in vascular plants the dominant stage of the life cycle is the _____.
Seedless plants include __________.
bryophytes, ferns, and horsetails
During the Carboniferous period, forests consisting mainly of ____ produced vast quantities of organic matter, which was buried and later became coal.
ferns and other seedless plants
In ferns the leaves are called _____.
Which of the following produce eggs and sperm?
moss gametophytes
Alternation of generations _____.
is distinguished by haploid and diploid stages that are both multicellular
Plants undergo alternation of generations in which _____.
he sporophyte generation alternates with the gametophyte generation
The development of the __________ allowed plants to exist on land. Algae do not have this feature.
Gametangia are__________.
single-celled in algae, multicellular in most plants
Vascular tissues of plants include __________.
xylem for conducting water and minerals, and phloem for conducting dissolved organic molecules
Most plant systematists believe that, of all the bryophytes, _____ are most closely related to vascular plants.
Mosses do not have "true leaves" because their leaflike structures lack _____.
vascular tissues
In the life cycle of a fern, the multicellular male gametangium (the sex organ that produces sperm cells) is called a(n) _____.
In the life cycle of ferns, the multicellular female gametangium (the sex organ that contains an egg) is a(n) _____.
Small nonvascular plants that lack a specialized conduction system are called __________.
_______ is found in woody tissues; _______ protect(s) pollen grains from environmental damage.
Lignin ... sporopollenin
The gametophyte stage of the plant life cycle is most conspicuous in _____.
When you see a green, "leafy" moss, you are looking at the _____.
gametophyte generation
Fertilization in moss occurs when sperm swim from a(n) __________ and down the neck of a(n) __________.
antheridium ... archegonium
The gametophyte generation of a moss _____,
is haploid
The innovation essential to the survival of bryophytes on land was _____.
the retention of the egg within the archegonium
How are gametes produced by bryophytes?
by mitosis of gametophyte cells
Which of the following are nonvascular but have adaptations that green algae lack (such as a cuticle and stomata)?
All heterosporous plants produce _____.
megaspores that develop into female gametophytes and microspores that develop into male gametophytes
Lycophytes are better adapted to life on land than true mosses because lycophytes have something that true mosses lack. What is it?
vascular tissues for the transport of water and nutrients from the soil
Strolling through the woods, you would be least likely to notice which of the following?
a fern gametophyte
Ferns and mosses are mostly limited to moist environments because _____.
they have swimming sperm
In cells entering prophase of mitosis in the gametophyte of a fern species that has a diploid number (2n) of 14, there would be _____.
7 chromosomes, each chromosome consisting of two chromatids
If the "dots" on the underside of a fern frond are spore cases, what is true of the plant to which the frond belongs?
It is a sporophyte.
A fern differs from a moss in that it has _____.
an independent sporophyte
Fern spores are __________, and the familiar, "leafy" fern plant itself is __________.
haploid ... diploid
Both mosses and ferns possess _____.
a free-living gametophyte
To examine meiosis in ferns, you would study _____.
the sporangia
Outdoors, where would you look for a fern gametophyte?
moist soil
Fern gametophytes are _____.
free-living, multicellular organisms
The fern gametophyte is called a _____.
Which one of the following organisms has both gametophyte and sporophyte stages in its life cycle but spends the largest fraction of that life cycle in the gametophyte stage
When you look at a pine or maple tree, the plant you see is _____.
diploid sporophyte
All seed plants _____.
are heterosporous
The evolutionary advance that made possible the colonization of dry environments by seed plants is most likely the result of the evolution of _____.
Gymnosperms were most abundant during the _____.
The major difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms comes from the __________.
presence or absence of a protective covering over the ovule
In pine, the embryo develops within the _____.
female gametophyte
Angiosperms are different from all other plants because only they have _____.
Unlike most angiosperms, grasses are pollinated by wind. As a consequence, some unnecessary parts of grass flowers have almost disappeared. Which of the following parts would you expect to be most reduced in a grass flower?
Human survival literally depends on the produce of __________.
While walking in the woods, you encounter a beautiful and unfamiliar flowering plant. If you want to know whether it is a monocot or dicot, it would NOT help to look at the _____.
size of the plant
Root hairs are important to a plant because they _____.
increase the surface area for absorption
Which of the following is correctly matched with its tissue system?
cortex ... ground tissue system
Most of the photosynthesis in a plant is carried out by _____ in the leaves.
parenchyma cells
How do cells in a meristem differ from other cells in a plant?
They continue to divide.
he primary growth of a plant adds __________ while secondary growth adds __________.
height ... girth
Cell division in the vascular cambium adds to the girth of a tree by adding new _____ on the inside of the cambium layer and _____ on the outside.
xylem ... phloem
Wood is _____.
secondary xylem
In plants, but not in animals, _____.
cell division requires the formation of a cell plate
The proton pump _____.
uses the energy stored in ATP to produce a proton gradient
A plant cell placed in a solution with a lower water potential will _____.
lose water and plasmolyze
The vacuole of a plant cell is defined by the _____.
Which of the following is a difference between transport by xylem and transport by phloem?
Xylem sap moves up; phloem sap moves up or down.
Which one of the following describes the loss of water through the stomata in a plant's leaves?
The last thing all water and solute molecules must pass through before they can enter the vascular system and move upward to the leaves is _____.
an endodermal cell
The Casparian strip is _____.
a waterproof "gasket" around the cells of the root"s endodermis
A student is performing a chemical analysis of xylem sap. This student should not expect to find much _____.
Xerophytes minimize water loss by _____
using the CAM pathway
The solute most abundant in phloem sap is _____.
Mineral nutrients _____.
contribute little to the weight of a plant
Which of the following is a symptom of magnesium deficiency?
A major long-term problem resulting from flood irrigation is the _____.
accumulation of salts in the soil
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil _____.
convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia
The relationship between legumes and Rhizobium is _____.
The location on a root that houses nitrogen-fixing bacteria is called __________.
a root nodule
Mutually beneficial associations between roots and soil fungi are called __________.
The sundew plant has to digest insects because _____.
it obtains nitrogen from their bodies that it cannot get from the soil
The term "alternation of generations" refers to the alternation in a plant's life cycle between _____.
haploid gametophyte generation and a diploid sporophyte generation
Select the correct association.
dioecious ... separate female and male plants
Meiosis will produce microspores in the _____.
Self-incompatibility _____.
: maintains variation
In angiosperms, each pollen grain produces two sperm. What do these sperm do?
One fertilizes an egg and the other fertilizes a cell that develops into stored food.
The scutellum _____.
is a specialized cotyledon found in certain monocots
The germination of seeds _____.
depends on imbibition
Which of the following is NOT a method of vegetative reproduction?
Plants growing in harsh environments such as deserts, sand dunes, and arctic tundra often reproduce vegetatively. This is because _____.
vegetative reproduction is not as risky as making seeds
In grafting, the plant that provides the root system is the ______ and the twig is the ______.
stock ... scion
Plant hormones act by affecting the activities of _____.
genes, membranes, and enzymes
Which of the following seedlings will probably bend toward the light?
one whose tip is separated from its base by a gelatin block
The Pr form of the phytochrome pigment has maximum absorption in the __________ part of the spectrum.
Plant hormones ____________.
include one that is a gas
A biological cycle with a period of about 24 hours is called _____.
a circadian rhythm
Most plants flower when _____.
the nights are the right length
The pigment involved in the flowering process (and other developmental events in plants) is _____.
Thigmotropism is a movement in response to _____.
Which one of the following is seen in plants in response to a water deficit?
all of the above