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34 Cards in this Set

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Gibbs Free Energy
Determines whether reaction is favorable (spontaneous, G<0) or unfavorable (non spontaneous, G>0)
Exergonic Reaction
Reaction with negative G
Endergonic Reaction
Reaction with positive G
Keq
relative concentrations of reagents when equilibrium is reached ( NOT rate), if large more products present at equilibrium
Ea, activation energy
Energy required to produce intermediate transition state
Catalyst
Lowers Ea w/out changing G by stabilizing transition state, not consumed in the reaction, regenerated
Reaction coupling
Favorable reactons drive unfavorable reactions due to the fact that free energy changes are additive.
ex. ATP hydrolysis
Covalent modification
Inactie form is turned to active form , ex - phosphorylation by kinases
Allosteric Regulation
When an enzyme binds at a site other then active site
Competetive inhibition
Molecule that resembles substrate binds to an active site and prevents substrate from further binding,stops reaction, can be reversed by adding more substrate
Non competetive inhibition
Enzyme binds to the site other then active site and changes shape of the enzyme amd active site is no longer active and substrate cant bind, non reversible.
Glycolysis
breakdown of glucose into two pyruvate molecules (3C), occurs in the cytoplasm, doesnt require oxygen
Krebs Cycle
Breaks pyruvate down into CO2, occurs i mitochondria, requires oxygen
Electron Transport System
Transfers e's that were removed from Krebs intermediates, occurs in mitochondria uses oxygen
Glycolysis Yield
2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvates
Fermentation
Breakdown of pyruvate under anaerobic conditions (absense of pyruvate). Pyruvate can be converted into lactic acid or ethanol/CO2, uses NADH produced in glycolysis.
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex
Pyruvate is decarbozylized(CO2 ) removed, acetate formed, NAD is reduced to NADH, acetyl attached to coenzyme A
Krebs Cycle
Acetyl Co-A enters, broken down to CO2, NADH and FADH2 are formed thorugh oxidation-reduction reactions
krebs Cycle Yield
6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 GTP per glucose
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Oxidation of NADH and FADH2 coupled to phosphorylation of ADP to ATP.
E-n Transport Chain
Energy released from oxidation of NADH and FADH2 used to pump H+ outo the mitochondrial matrix. Each member of the chain reduces member down the line.
ATP yield per glucose
Eukaryotes - 36
prokaryotes - 38
Nucleic Acid
Large polymer composed of nucleotides, contain carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus
Nucleotide
A sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), phosphate group and nitrogenous base, formed from nucleoside - sugar + base
Pyrimidines
Single ring , cytosine, thymine, uracil
Purines
Double ring - adenine + guanine
DNA
hereditary material,right handed double helix, 2 antiparallel strands
A=T, G=C. Held together by hydrogen bonding
DNA Replication
Semiconservative (one new strand , one old strand), template is read 3"-5", polymerization - 5"-3", requires template, requires primer
leading strand
Follows directly behind helicase and replicates in one long strand
Lagging strand
Replicates in short segments - Okazaki fragments in opposite direction from helicase
Exons
contain actual genetic information coding for proteins, not spliced
Frameshift mutation
Change in DNA resulting in misreading of all codons downstream
Missense mutation
Results in coding of different amino acid
Nonsense mutaiton
Early termination by stop codon