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128 Cards in this Set

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what circumstances are neccesary for fertilization to occur?
*The woman has just ovulated, or she will ovulate within 1 - 2 days

*The mucous plug in her cervix will be thin and watery; sperm can easily penetrate it

*Most sperm will die in her vagina, but a few million (1 - 2%) are pulled through the cervix, into the uterus, and into the Fallopian tubes where they are propelled toward the ampulla (+100,000 make it this far)

*Sperm meet the oocyte, and fertilization can occur
At ovulation, oocyte is surrounded by a thick membrane called the [BLANK], and by the follicular cells called the [BLANK]
zona pellucida, corona radiata
[BLANK] surrounding the opening of the fallopian tube sweep the oocyte into the [BLANK]
Fimbria, infundibulum
how long does the oocyte stay viable?
12-24 hours
where does fertilization occur?
ampulla of the fallopian tube
what processes do the sperm have to go through to be able to fertilize an egg?
capacitation, acrosome reaction
CAPACITATION
PRIOR TO EJACULATION: *membrane around head of sperm is strong
*Semen contains chemicals to prevent weakening
*Tail is moderately active

AFTER EJACULATION:
*chemicals in semen dilluted/washed away
*Secretions from uterus and oviducts cause membrane to weaken
*Movement of tail increases
ACROSOME REACTION
*Occurs as sperm make contact with corona radiata and zona pellucida
*Requires 15-60 minutes
*Acrosome swells, becomes leaky, releases digestive enzymes.
FAST BLOCK
Plasma membrane of oocyte changes its electrical charge, which prevents other sperm from binding onto it
SLOW BLOCK
Zona pellucida swells, pushing other sperm away from the oocyte
What forms from the unification of a sperm and egg?
zygote
cleavage
the repeated divisions the zygote goes through
morula
solid mass of 20-30 cells that the zygote forms (same size as zygote...

reaches uterus in 2-3 days
As oocyte was developing, follicle in ovary secreted estrogen, which caused:
*endometrium to thicken and prepare for pregnancy.
At time of ovulation and fertilization, follicle develops into corpus luteum which begins to secrete [BLANK], keeping endometrium ready for pregnancy
progesterone--is secreted at [blank] time to keep endometrium ready for fertilization
morula develops in to a hollow mass of cells called the [blank]
blastocyst
hollow center of the blastocyst = ?
blastocyst cavity
embryoblast
mass of cells at one end of the blastocyst
cells surrounding the blastocyst cavity and the embryoblast
trophoblast
implantation
blastocyst embedds itself into the endometrium
trophoblast begins to secrete: [blank]
HCG
what does hcg do?
HCG stimulates corpus luteum of ovary to remain active and to continue secreting progesterone instead of shrinking.
what does progesterone do during pregnancy?
This progesterone keeps endometrium from dying and being shed. Thus, menstruation does not occur.
how long is HCG produced for?
HCG produced +/- 8 weeks, then placenta mature enough to produce progesterone.
Corpus luteum in ovary slowly degenerates, but [blank] from placenta prevents new follicles from developing
progesterone
as trophoblast sectretes the digestive enzymes to embed the blastocyst into the uterine lining the embryoblast develops into what?
embryo
Fluid-filled space called [blank] develops between embryoblast and trophoblast
amniotic cavity
where does the amniotic cavity develop?
between the embryoblast and trophoblast
Embryoblast = flat disk between amniotic cavity and blastocyst cavity. Now called [blank]
embryonic disc or simply embryo
what happens during the embryonic period?
cells of embryoblast differentiate into beginnings of the organs
pre-embryonic period
fertilization - 2 weeks
embryonic period
2 weeks - 8 weeks
what period lasts from 8 weeks - birth
fetal period
rhythm method
1. Rhythm:
*Sperm viability: few days
*Oocyte viability: one day
**Avoid sexual intercouse 5-7 days on either side of expected ovulation
***Length of cycle / time of ovulation vary: unsafe period > 2 weeks/cycle

**see recommendations ppt 10**
Basal Temperature
2. Basal Temperature Monitoring:
*Few hours before ovulation: body temperature drops fraction of degree
*Few hours after ovulation: body temperature rises fraction of degree
**Use temperature changes to detect ovulation, avoid intercouse

**see recommendations ppt 10*
Cervical Mucous Screening
3. Cervical Mucous Screening:
*Most of cycle: cervical mucous thick, stringy
*Near time of ovulation: cervical mucous thins
**Threads of mucous stretched to detect “stringiness” avoid intercourse near ovulation

**see recommendations ppt 10**
Withdrawal or Coitus Interruptus
**Penis must be completely withdrawn from vagina before ejaculation

**see reccomendations ppt 10*
rhythm failure rates?
16-35%
withdrawal failure rates?
12-30%
Spermicides
*Creams, jellies, sponges, foams, dissolving films, etc.
*Can be applied 30 – 60 minutes before intercourse *May be used with or without barriers
*Must be reapplied before each sexual intercourse
*Usually no effect on sexual motivation or sexual response

recommended for those motivated to use, and those couples able to accept relatively high failure rate
Spermicide failure rate?
12-25%
condoms
*Must be put on and removed while penis erect
*Must be put one before emission phase of ejaculation
*Can be used with or without spermicides; more effective if both used
*Also protects against sexually transmitted diseases

reccomended for couples motivated to use them regularly and correctly
Diaphragm or Cervical Cap
*Fits tightly in vagina, just below cervix
*May be used with or without spermicide; more effective if both used
*Risk of displacement during foreplay / intercourse
*Must remain in place until no living sperm in vagina: hours

**fitting and prescription required**
Embryoblast = flat disk between amniotic cavity and blastocyst cavity. Now called [blank]
embryonic disc or simply embryo
what happens during the embryonic period?
cells of embryoblast differentiate into beginnings of the organs
pre-embryonic period
fertilization - 2 weeks
embryonic period
2 weeks - 8 weeks
8 weeks - birth
fetal period
rhythm method
1. Rhythm:
*Sperm viability: few days
*Oocyte viability: one day
**Avoid sexual intercouse 5-7 days on either side of expected ovulation
***Length of cycle / time of ovulation vary: unsafe period > 2 weeks/cycle

**see recommendations ppt 10**
Basal Temperature
2. Basal Temperature Monitoring:
*Few hours before ovulation: body temperature drops fraction of degree
*Few hours after ovulation: body temperature rises fraction of degree
**Use temperature changes to detect ovulation, avoid intercouse

**see recommendations ppt 10*
Cervical Mucous Screening
3. Cervical Mucous Screening:
*Most of cycle: cervical mucous thick, stringy
*Near time of ovulation: cervical mucous thins
**Threads of mucous stretched to detect “stringiness” avoid intercourse near ovulation

**see recommendations ppt 10**
Withdrawal or Coitus Interruptus
**Penis must be completely withdrawn from vagina before ejaculation

**see reccomendations ppt 10*
rhythm failure rates?
16-35%
withdrawal failure rates?
12-30%
Spermicides
*Creams, jellies, sponges, foams, dissolving films, etc.
*Can be applied 30 – 60 minutes before intercourse *May be used with or without barriers
*Must be reapplied before each sexual intercourse
*Usually no effect on sexual motivation or sexual response

recommended for those motivated to use, and those couples able to accept relatively high failure rate
Spermicide failure rate?
12-25%
condoms
*Must be put on and removed while penis erect
*Must be put one before emission phase of ejaculation
*Can be used with or without spermicides; more effective if both used
*Also protects against sexually transmitted diseases

reccomended for couples motivated to use them regularly and correctly
Diaphragm or Cervical Cap
*Fits tightly in vagina, just below cervix
*May be used with or without spermicide; more effective if both used
*Risk of displacement during foreplay / intercourse
*Must remain in place until no living sperm in vagina: hours

**fitting and prescription required**
Embryoblast = flat disk between amniotic cavity and blastocyst cavity. Now called [blank]
embryonic disc or simply embryo
what happens during the embryonic period?
cells of embryoblast differentiate into beginnings of the organs
pre-embryonic period
fertilization - 2 weeks
embryonic period
2 weeks - 8 weeks
8 weeks - birth
fetal period
rhythm method
1. Rhythm:
*Sperm viability: few days
*Oocyte viability: one day
**Avoid sexual intercouse 5-7 days on either side of expected ovulation
***Length of cycle / time of ovulation vary: unsafe period > 2 weeks/cycle

**see recommendations ppt 10**
Basal Temperature
2. Basal Temperature Monitoring:
*Few hours before ovulation: body temperature drops fraction of degree
*Few hours after ovulation: body temperature rises fraction of degree
**Use temperature changes to detect ovulation, avoid intercouse

**see recommendations ppt 10*
Cervical Mucous Screening
3. Cervical Mucous Screening:
*Most of cycle: cervical mucous thick, stringy
*Near time of ovulation: cervical mucous thins
**Threads of mucous stretched to detect “stringiness” avoid intercourse near ovulation

**see recommendations ppt 10**
Withdrawal or Coitus Interruptus
**Penis must be completely withdrawn from vagina before ejaculation

**see reccomendations ppt 10*
rhythm failure rates?
16-35%
withdrawal failure rates?
12-30%
Spermicides
*Creams, jellies, sponges, foams, dissolving films, etc.
*Can be applied 30 – 60 minutes before intercourse *May be used with or without barriers
*Must be reapplied before each sexual intercourse
*Usually no effect on sexual motivation or sexual response

recommended for those motivated to use, and those couples able to accept relatively high failure rate
Spermicide failure rate?
12-25%
considerations/requirements when using condoms?
*Must be put on and removed while penis erect
*Must be put one before emission phase of ejaculation
*Can be used with or without spermicides; more effective if both used
*Also protects against sexually transmitted diseases

reccomended for couples motivated to use them regularly and correctly
Diaphragm or Cervical Cap
*Fits tightly in vagina, just below cervix
*May be used with or without spermicide; more effective if both used
*Risk of displacement during foreplay / intercourse
*Must remain in place until no living sperm in vagina: hours

**fitting and prescription required**
condom failure rates
5-12
condom + spermicide failure rates
1-5
cervical cap / diaphragm failure rates?
5-12
cervical cap / diaphragm + spermicide failure rates?
1-5
intrauterine devices

IUD
*Inserted through cervix into uterus; left in place for months
*Produces mild inflammation of endometrium,
*Usually no effect on sexual motivation or sexual response
two types of IUDs
*copper wire wrapped around stem
*progesterone embedded in plastic and slowly released
Risks and considerations for the IUDs
*May be expelled from uterus
*Risk of damage to uterus
*Increased risk of uterine infection
*Typically increases amount and discomfort of menstruation


**Thus: typically recommended only for women who can not (or chose not to)
use other methods of ontraception
failure rates of IUDs
0.3-3%
oral contraceptives
Combinations of estrogen and progesterone, taken daily, weekly, monthly.

*Negative feedback: suppression of FSH, LH, secretion. So a follicle is not produced, but then female sex hormones are not produced, so the pill provides them.

**Keeps mucous of cervix thick.

***Decreased growth of lining of uterus.
Side effects of oral contraceptives?
*Increased risk of blood clots
*Less discomfort during menstruation
*Decreased acne
*Usually no effect on sexual motivation or sexual response
failure rates of oral contraceptives?
0.1-3%
Implanted or injected Progestins
Progestins = synthetic forms of progesterone
*Silicon tubes containing progestins implanted under skin (e.g. Norplant) or progestins injected 2 - 4 times / year (e.g. DepoProvera)
*Hormone slowly released into blood
*Can last up to five years
Easily removable
*So far: no serious side effects
*Usually no effect on sexual motivation or sexual response
how do implants work?
Similar mechanism as oral contraceptives:

*Negative feedback: Inhibits pituitary secretion of LH and FSH.

**Keeps mucous thick

***Decreased growth of uterine lining
failure rates for implants
0.1-1%
Vasectomy
*Incisions in scrotum, both spermatic cords exposed
*Vas deferens carefull separated from other structures in spermatic cord and small secion of each is removed each is then sealed
*Permanent
*Usually no effect on sexual motivation or sexual response
*Semen are not ale to travel to the urethra
*Sperm trapped behind cut must be absorbed; immune reaction possible
Tubal Ligation
*Incisions made in abdomen
*Laparoscope used to identify Fallopian tubes
*Fallopian tubes tied or sealed
*Permanent
*Usually no effect on sexual motivation or sexual response
Hysterectomy
*Complete removal of uterus
*Fallopian tubes and ovaries may or may not also be removed
*Also stops menstrual periods
failure rates of male sterilization?
0-0.2%
failure rates of female sterilization?
0-0.5%
zygote forms --->
morula
morula forms ---> ?
blastocyst
blastocyst forms ---> ?
trophoblast and embryoblast
trophoblast forms ---> ?
placenta
embryoblast forms ---> ?
embryo
formation of amniotic cavity?
between the trophoblast and embryoblast
inner lining of the trophoblast forms ---> ?
chorion (amniotic sac or amniotic membrane)
what happens during the embryonic period?
cells of embyonic disk differentiate to create forms of almost all the organs
cells of the embryonic disc form what three layers?
endoderm (nearest blastocyst cavity), mesoderm (middle), ectoderm (nearest amniotic cavity)
endoderm will form the:
digestive and respiratory systems
Mesoderm will form the
skeletal muscular urinary reproductive cardiovascular systems
ectoderm forms the
nervous system and back bone
the first system to develop?
nervous system
how does nervous system form?
groove in ectoderm folds over to form neural tube.

it enlarges at one end to form the brain, and reamains cylindrical at one end to form spinal cord
how is the embryo connected to the placenta?
by the umbilical cord.
what is the function of the umbilical cord?
to carry blood between the placenta and the embryo
by what day to arm and leg buds form?
day 28
what happens during the late embryonic period (4-8 weeks)?
*Nervous system continues to develop; brain rapidly enlarges and folds

*Eyes and ears begin to develop

*Limbs continue developing, fingers and toes separate

*Digestive system forms esophagus, stomach, intestine, liver, pancreas

*Lungs bud off from digestive system and grow

*Heart folds, divides into two chambers and then four, begins contractions

*Kidneys, bladder, gonads develop

*Face develops as two halves on side of head; move to front and fuse
what signifes the beginning of the embryonic period?
*Body has human shape
*Almost all organs have begun developing
* Head growth still most pronounced
* Limbs complete
* Length ~ 3 centimeters
* Mass ~ 1 – 2 grams
how does the placenta function?
*Fetal heart pumps blood from embryo to placenta through umbilical arteries:
********Low in oxygen, High in carbon dioxide & other wastes********

In placenta:
*Carbon dioxide & wastes diffuse out of fetal blood into maternal blood

*Oxygen & nutrients diffuse from maternal blood into fetal blood

Blood flows from placenta back to embryo through umbilical veins:
********High in oxygen and nutrients, Low in carbon dioxide & other wastes********
when are males and females able to be distinguished visually?
by the tenth week
17 weeks (four months)
*Skin formed, but thin. *Blood vessels easily seen through it
*Hair starting to develop.
*Fingernails and toenails forming.
*Eyelids still fused shut.
*Ovaries form primordial follicles.
*May suck thumb.
*Moves arms, legs, head
*Mother can feel movement.
26 weeks (six months)
*Hair present over entire body. Will become longer on scalp
*Eyebrows and eyelashes forming
*Eyelids almost open
*Lungs producing surfactant
*Testes begin descent through inguinal canal
*Swallowing amniotic fluid
*Movement of hands, feet, face
34 weeks (eight months)
*Skin pink, smooth
*Longer hair on head
*Eyes open, respond to light
*Fingernails and toenails have reached ends of fingers and toes
*Testes have reached scrotum
*Fingers can grasp objects, fine movement of face and eyes
typical weight gain during pregnancy?
25 pounds
what organisms or functions are not mature at birth?
**Lungs not inflated, fetus inhaling amniotic fluid**

**No food in digestive system; fetus swalloing amniotic fluid**

**Temperature regulation not active**

**Vision restricted to light and dark**

**Blood shunted away from lungs**
what 2 events trigger strong contractions of the uterus?
1. Mother’s pituitary gland begins to secrete large amounts of oxytocin

2. Placenta stops producing progesterone

Therefore: Myometrium (muscle layer) of uterus begins strong, coordinated, rhythmic contractions which force the head of the fetus against the inside of the cervix
what are some Triggering Events for expulsion/birth of the fetus?
**Adrenal glands of fetus stimulate placenta to produce chemicals called prostaglandins.**

**Prostaglandins cross placenta into mother’s blood; stimulate her pituitary gland to secrete oxytocin.**

**Prostaglandins also cause placenta to stop producing progesterone**
what are the 3 stages of labor?
**Effacement**
(thinning) and dilation (widening) of cervix--8-24 hrs
**Expulsion** 15-30 min
**Delivery of placenta**
10-45 min
Stage 1: Effacement and dilation of cervix
**Contractions begin many minutes apart, relatively weak........Gradually increase in strength and frequency**

**Cervix thins, shortens due to pressure of fetal head – EFFACEMENT**

**Cervical opening widens to about 10 cm - DILATION**

**Amnion/chorion usually ruptures toward end of this stage**
Stage 2: Expulsion of fetus
**Contractions of uterus strong, regular ~ 1-2 minutes apart. Mother may push with diaphragm and abdominal muscles.**

**Head enters vagina, Stretches vagina & labia**

**Head turns so top of head faces front**

**Head = widest part, so rest of body follows easily**

**Shoulders rotate as they pass through vagina, so baby faces right or left**
Stage 3: Delivery of placenta
**Once breathing, baby no longer dependent on umbilical cord. Can be cut.**

**Placenta still attached to endometrium of uterus. Ruptured amnion and chorion attached to placenta. Umbilical cord extends out vagina**

**Contractions of uterus continue, loosening placenta**

**Placenta expelled through vagina**
adjustments after birth for the mother
***Uterus continues to contract for days to expell remaining functional layer of endometrium.***

***Uterus becomes smaller***

***Pubic joint (and other joints) tighten***

***Prolactin from pituitary gland continues to stimulate production of milk in breasts***

***Oxytocin from pituitary gland stimulates expression of milk from breasts***
what is a mothers milk like in the first few days?
High in fat, protein, mineral, antibodies colustrum
adjustments after birth for the infant
*As body cools, brain simulates heat production*

*As infant nurses, digestive system begins to produce and secrete chemicals (enzmes) for digestion.*

*Starts breathing, lungs inflate (many minutes)*

*Blood starts flowing to lungs as shunts close (days)*
what can go wrong during or after birth?
1) Labor & delivery begins too early or too late
2) Amnion/chorion ruptures too early or too late
3) Strong contractions can not develop
4) Fetus not head-down in uterus
5) Placenta over cervix
6) Placenta separates from uterus too early or too late
7) Fetus (or just head) too large to fit through cervix and vagina
8) Fetus (or just head) too large to fit through pelvic bones
9) Umbilical cord wrapped around fetus – gets constricted
10) Maternal hemorrhage