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157 Cards in this Set

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located above pituitary, hypothalamus controls pituitary, synthesizes hormones and transfers them to the posterior pituitary to be stored until hypothalamus gives relasing signal, connected to posterior pituitary by nervous tract, produces signaling hormones telling anterior pituitary when to release hormones, connected to A. pituitary by portal system (vein, capillary, vein)
Posterior Pituitary
stores hormones from hypothalamus, includes ADH (anitdiuretic hormone) and oxytocin
Anterior Pituitary
manufactures its own hormones until told to release by hypothalamus, includes LH (leutinizing hormone), FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) ATCH (adrenocoricotropic hormone) PRL (prolactin), TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), and GH (growth hormone)
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
peptide, promotes retention of water by the kidneys, regulated by salt/water balance
peptide, stimulates contraction in uterus and mammary gland cells, regulated by nervous system
GH (growth hormone)
protein, stimulates growth of tissues (especially bone) and metabolic functions, regulated by hypothalamic hormones
PRL (prolactin)
protein, stimulates milk production and secretion, regulated by hypothalamic hormones
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
glycoprotein, stimulates production of ova and sperm, regulated by hypothalamic hormones
LH (leutinizing hormone)
glycoproteins, stimulates ovaries and testes, regulated by hypothalamic hormones
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
glycoprotein, stimulates thyroid gland, regulated by hypothalamic hormones, also thyroxine levels in blood by negative feedback
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormones)
peptide, stimulates adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids, regulated by hypothalamic hormones, also glucocoricoids by negative feedback
Thyroid gland
found in front of neck, two lobes, composed of fluid filled follicles, three hormones: T3 (triiodothyronine), T4 (thyroxine), and calcitonin,
hollow area created by circular arrangement of follicles where the thyroid hormones are stored
T3 and T4 (triiodothyronine and thyroxine)
amines, stimulates and maintains metabolic processes, regulated by TSH from the anterior pituitary
peptide, decreases blood calcium levels, regulated by calcium levels in the blood, stimulates osteoblasts
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
amine, increases blood calcium levels, regulated by calcium levels in blood, stimulates osteoclasts
Alpha cells
in pancreas, release glucagon
Beta cells
in pancreas, release insulin
Islets of Langerhans
areas of pancreas where alpha and beta cells are found
protein, raises blood glucose levels, regulated by glucose leves in blood
protein, lowers blood glucose levels, regulated by blood glucose levels
Diabetes Mellitus
caused by insulin deficiency, type I (juvenile) and type II, hampers protein and fat synthesis
Adrenal glands
adrenal medulla and cortex, release catecholamines from medulla (epinephrine and norepinephrine) release gluco- and mineral-corticoids from cortex
anime, raise blood glucose levels, increase metabolic activities, and constrict blood vessels, regulated by nervous system
steriod, raise blood glucose, regulated by ACTH
steriod, promote reabsorption of Na+ and excretion of K+ in the kidneys, regulated by blood K+ levels,
Pineal gland
center of brain attached to thalamus, secretes melatonin, controls biological rhythms,
amine, involved in biological rhythms, regulated by light and dark cycles
behind sternum between lungs, releases thymosin
peptide, stimulates T cells
male gonads which secrete androgens, formation of spermatozoa, composed of ~ 250 lobules
female gonads which secrete progesterone and estrogens
steriod, support sperm formation, promote development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics, regulated by FSH and LH
steriod, promote uterine lining growth, regulated by FSH and LH
steroid, stimulate uterine lining growth, promote development and maintenance of female 2ndary sex characteristics, regulated by blood K+ levels
Seminiferous tubules
created by the subdivision of each lobule in the testes by connective tissue, lined with germinal epithelium which includes supporting cells and spermatogonia (undergo mitosis and meiosis to become sperm cells), made up of sertoli cells,
formation of sperm
spermatogonia develops into one spermatocyte which undergoes meiosis I to become 2 secondary spermatocytes which EACH undergo meiosis II to become 2 spermatids (4 total) which develop into mature sperm
tightly coiled tube, 6m long, connects seminiferous tubules to the vas deferens, houses immature sperm,
Vas deferens
muscular tube, 45 cm long, passes through lower abdominal wall ending behind bladder, joins with a duct of the seminal vesicle to fomr the ejaculatory duct which passes through the prostate and joins the urethra, smooth muscles contract to move sperm to the urethra
Seminal vesicle
sac-like structure attached to the vas deferens, consists of a number of secretory tubules, secretes alkaline fluids to neutralize acidity of sperm and vaginal secretions, most of fluid in semen is made here,
Prostate gland
surrounds urethra, found below bladder, secretes milky fluid that neutralizes seminal fluid and acidic conditions of the vagina
Bulbourethral (Cowper's) gland
two small glands beneath the prostate, secretes a lubricant for the penis during sexual reproduction,
fluid composed of mature sperm and secretions from the seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands
pouch of skin and subcutaneous skin that encloses testes, allows testes to remain outside of body
specialized erectile tissue,
bone in some species to help stiffen the penis
Glans penis
tip of penis, surrounded by hood of tissue called prepuce or foreskin
GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone)
when released by hypothalamus = male body begins to mature, stimulates anterior pituitary to relase FSH and LH
production of female sex cells (ova) and sex hormones
millions of primordial follicles in embryo, some disappear leaving one million which develop into one oogonium, this develops into one oocyte. this all happens before birth, frozen in prophase I early meiosis I until puberty. once a month, 1 oocyte undergoes meiosis to produce 1 secondary oocyte and one primary polar body, secondary oocyte is frozen in metaphase until penetrated by sperm, penetration causes to resume meiosis II and produce an ovum and a secondary polar body
oocyte after penetration of sperm, NOT A ZYGOTE, plasmogamy,nuclei not yet fused.
Primary follicle
a structure housing the primary oocyte and several follicular cells which are epithelial cells that surround the oocyte
rupturing of primary follicle and release of secondary oocyte (ovum) into the fallopian tube, follicular cells and follucular fluids released as well
Fallopian tubes (oviducts)
openings near ovaries, collects ovum and transports it to uterus, line with tiny finger like projections called fimbriae, sweep ovum into oviduct (fallopian tubes), tubes are lined with ciliated cells which work with peristaltic contractions to move the ovum to the uterus
Uterus and cervix
organ that receives embryo, sustains the embryo throughout development, cervix is the neck of the uterus which opens into the vagina,
opening in female that leads to the uterus, receives penis and semen during intercourse, conveys secretions of uterus, and transports offspring during birth
regjion of female crotch where vaginal and urethral openings are found
Labia (minora and majora)
slender skin folds that surround vestibule (minora) and thick fatty ridges that surround minora (majora)
short shaft of erectile tissue
protective hood over clitoris
Bartholin's glands
produce mucus into vestibule near vagina to keep it lubricated and to facilitate coitus
Ovarian Cycle
1. follicular phase: follicles grow gradually producing greater levels of estrogen in response to FSH and LH, ends when ovulation occurs
2. Ovulation: occurs when anterior pituitary releases a large amount of LH, FSH and LH increase due to +feedback, increasing levels of estrogen cause increase in GnRH, LH, and FSH, which cause more estrogen (+feedback), this loop causes a surge of LH that leads to ovulation
3. Luteal phase: follicular cells released by ovulation give rise to corpus luteum which secretes estrogen with hight levels of progesterone, this causes the uterine lining to become more vascularized and glandular (corpus luteum degenerates and is replaced by connective tissue b/c of less estrogen and progesterone levels if egg is not fertilized, otherwise the developing embryo produce human chorionic gonadotropin which maintains progesterone levels by the corpus luteum for several months)
Menstrual Cycle
1. Menstrual phase - lining of uterus is shed, lasts several days,
2. Proliferative phase - lasts 10 days, endometrium regenerates and proliferates,
3. Secretory phase - lasts 2 weeks, endometrium continues to thicken, become vascularized and glandular
Nervous system functions
sensation, integration, motor functions
Afferent neurons
neurons that carry nerve impulses to interneurons of the CNS
higher centers in the brain bring together information delivered from afferent sensory neurons and make decisions
connect afferent sensory neurons to efferent motor neurons
supporting cells of the nervous system
cell body of neuron
myelin sheath
lipoprotein found in neuroglial cells that wraps around the axon, makes signals faster, produced from Schwann cells in PNS, produced from oligodendrocytes in CNS (create white matter), gaps are called nodes of Ranvier
Nodes of Ranvier
gaps in myelin sheath, causes saltatory conduction meaning nerve impulses jump between Nodes = faster
Action potentials
changes in electrical current (depolarization)
Chemical synapse
1. A.P. depolarizes presynaptic membrane,
2. opens voltage-gated Ca2+ channels
3. Ca2+ triggers vessicles to move to membrane
4. vessicles exocytose neurotransmitters
5. NTs bind to receptor to open ligand-gated ion channels
6. receptor releases NT and channel closes
Potassium, K+
moves more freely through ungated channel, moves faster
Na+/K+ pump
active transport protein to pump Na+ and K+ across cell membrane, moved across concentration gradients, 3 Na+ = out of cell for every 2 K+ = into cell, more K+ leaves than Na+ enters
Resting potential of most cells
-70mV b/c of Na+/K+ pump, stimuli cause changes in this
E = 62mV (log {[ion] outside}/{[ion]inside})
Nernst equation of membrane equilibrium potential (E) for one ion of net charge 1+
causes resting potential to become more negative
causes resting potential to become less negative
threshold potential
minimum amount of depolarization (stimuli) that must occur before an action potential can occur, threshold potential value for most cells = 55 mV, when reached voltage gated Na+ channels open causing Na+ ions to diffuse into the cell causing depolarization of the cell causing more Na+ channels to open and further depolarization (+feedback), when reaches +30mV, K+ channels open and cell potential repolarizing (returns to negative state)
subthreshold potential
depolarization lower that threshold potential
potential summation
potential changes from multiple sources have additive effects, can achieve action potential
Refractory period
period of time between depolarization and repolarization of the cell during which no additional action potentials can occur, like resting stage
Nerve impulse
a wave of action potentials that transverse the length of the axon, rate increased by myelin sheath and increase in diameter of axon, occur in all-or-none fashion
excitatory postsynaptic potential, causes depolarization of postsynaptic cell by increasing Na+ permeability, any given EPSP is not enough for threshold, but together could be
inhibitory postsynaptic potential, causes hyperpolarization of postsynaptic cell by decreasing Na+ permeability, can work against EPSPs to prevent action potentials
parasympathetic autonomic nervous systems
resting and digesting, uses acetylcholine
sympathetic autonomic nervous systems
fight or flight, uses norepinephrine
Lobes of brain
occipital - vision, visual association area
parietal - somatosensory cortex, speech, taste, somatosensory association area, reading,
temporal - smell, hearing, auditory association area
frontal - frontal association area, speech, motor cortex
Hydrostatic skeleton
incompressible fluid held under pressure in a closed compartment, found in flatworms cnidarians nematodes and annelids, movement from peristaltic contractions, lacks hard parts
molluscs and arthropods, calcium carbonate (molluscs), strong but not flexible. Chitin; cuticle is segmented, strong and flexible (arthropods) skeleton on outside.
spicules (sponges) and bones and cartilages (mammals), hard parts buried
fundamental unit of muscle, composed of filaments (actin and myosin)
thin filaments in a sarcomere
Thick filaments in a sarcomere
released for muscle contraction
when Ca binds to _______, causes tropomyosin to move, which exposes myosin binding sites on actin
Motor unit
a motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it controls
study of the relationship of the organism and its environment
number of animals per unit of area (emergent properties of a population)
N(t) = N(o)e^rt
general relationship between population size and number of generations, exponential growth
number of individuals in the population at time t
initial number of individuals in the population
the exponential rate of population change (increase or decrease), r = b-d, or r = b - d + I - E
time spanning from the initial population to time t
immigration, movement of individuals INTO the population
emigration, movement of individuals OUT of the population
Biotic potential
ability of the population to increase in size under optimal conditions, AKA intrinsic rate of increase, achieved when age distribution remains constant, represented by r(max)
rate of population increase under optimal conditions
Logistic model
accounts for environmental resistance, when environmental resistances are low, it accounts for exponential growth, when resistances are high, it represents tapering growth in the population. Also exhibits stabilization as population approaches K, shown by N(t) = r(o)N [(K-N)/K], S-shaped curve
N(t) = r(o)N [(K-N)/K]
logistic growth
instantaneous rate of increase at t=0
population size before t - 1
represents proportion of unutilized resources
Density dependent factors
factors that influence population growth and ARE based on the density (size) of the population (disease, competition, predation)
Density independent factors
factors that influence population growth and ARE NOT based on density (size) of the population (abiotic factors: flooding, fire)
LIfe history traits
traits that affect an organism's schedule of reproduction and chance of survival, there is a tradeoff in the distribution of limited resources between the conflicting processes of reproduction and growth
Natural selection
optimizes/improves the distribution of resources to maximize fitness (affects life history)
genetic contribution the organism passes to the next generation, the number of offspring the organism produces
r and K selection
life history strategies related to the logistic model
r-selected species
produce large numbers of offspring without investing in any single progeny (offspring), these species focus on the exponential phase of the logistic model, r; small, short-lived, early-maturing individuals, provide little parental care to offspring, produce many small young, employ semelparity
K-selected species
produce small numbers of offspring and have relatively large investments in them, these species focus on the [(K-N)/K] portion in which N is at/near K, not much room for population size increase; large, long-lived, late-maturing, provide large amount of parental care to offspring, produce few large young, employ iteroparity
produce many offspring all at once
produce offspring throughout lifetime of individual in small numbers
study of population characteristics and changes such as density and distribution
replacement-level fertility rate
average number of children a couple must have to replace themselves, can be higher than 2 due to death or infertility of offspring, child bearing years of average woman = 15-44
doubling time
time required for the population to double in size, determined by the "Rule of 70" (DT is roughly = to 70 divided by the rate of population increase; DT = 70/r, remember r is a percentage, if r = 3%, then use .03)
Age distribution
number of % of persons at each age class in a population, most important age classes = pre-productive (0-14), productive (15-44), and Post-productive (45-death)
ecological community
set of all the interacting species in a given habitat
community level interactions
interactions between species in an ecological community
keystone species
species that aid in the prevention of competition among species by maintaining diversity by lowering the population numbers of competing species in the community
niche partitioning
divvying up different niche components such that the niches of ecologically similar species are not perfectly overlapping, prevents competition
character displacement
divergence in the characteristics of similar species in areas where their ranges overlap, darwin's finches
character release
opposite of character displacement, two species may become more similar in their characteristics due to the lack of competition between them
Trophic levels
representations of the feeding relationships between the species within a community, one trophic level is all of the organisms that are the same number of feeding levels away from the ultimate source of energy in the community (generally the sun)
ecological community (species), their nonliving environment and the interactions of the species within the community
10% rule
in energy transfer, approximately 10% of high quality chemical energy is transferred to the next trophic level after consumption, other 90% is lost as low quality heat, limits trophic levels to 4-6 levels
pyramid of numbers
number of organisms found at each trophic level, can be inverted
pyramid of biomass
amount of matter per unit area tied up in each trophic level, can be inverted
pyramid of energy
amount of energy tied up in each trophic level, CANNOT be inverted
five reasons we need to conserve species:
A: aesthetic
E: ecological
I: intellectual
O: obligatory
U: utilitarian
local and global, four reasons: environmental risks (changes in environment), natural catastrophe, genetic risk (reduction of fitness due to genetic drift and interbreeding mostly in smaller populations), and anthropomorphic activity (human activity)
how humans affect biodiversity:
H: habitat fragmentation
I: introduced and invasive species
P: pollution and human-induced climate change
P: population growth
O: overconsumption of resources
where an unfertilized egg (ovum, ova) can give rise to another individual, (in bees, unfertilized eggs = male drones, fertilized eggs= females)
area of land drained by one stream, contain info about health of surrounding area
Oxygen cycle
part of all other biogeochemical cycles, largest compartment of oxygen is earth's crust, then atmosphere;
oxidant, toxic at ground level, shield at atmosphere level
shorter wavelengths, more energy than visible light, produced by sun, split into 3 bands (UVA, UVB, AND UVC) increasingly dangerous
used as propellants, refridgerants, in foam, rise above o3 layer and are dstroyed by sun, release Cl, takes years to disappears, single molecule can destroy thousands of O3 molecules,
Water cycle
1/5 of sunlight is used to power the cycle, 2.5% of H20 is freshwater in polar ice caps,
Carbon cycle
comes in form of CO2 fossil fuels, increasing co2 levels = increase in temp.,
Nitrogen cycle
majority of N2 cannot be used, bacteria can fix it, useable in amino acid form, human activities release nitrogne into atmosphere, most affected cycle by humans,
Phosphorus cycle
no appreciable component in atmosphere, major limiting factor in most ecosystems, primarily found as phosphate and does not undergo redox reactions like nigtrogen and sulfur, sources: rocks and bird guano,
excessive fertilizers, excess nitrogen leads to blue-green algae which take up all oxygen and kill fish and plants in water
Sulfur cycle and acid rain
undergoes redox rxns like nitrogen cycle, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides react with water vapor and oxygen to form nitric and sulfuric acids, which can travel long distances and are deposited with rain
acid rain
ph below 5.6, often found in lakes and streams which are not buffered, good buffer example is limestone (prevalent in Kentucky)
Interspecific interactions
interactions involving 2 or more different species, +=benefit, - =harm, 0 = neither