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251 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
study of bacteria
Study of viruses
Study of fungi
Study of algae
Study of protozoa
Study of parasites
Study of immune stystem
Study of the outbreaks of disease
What are the single celled algaea?
Any process in which humans use the metabolism of another organism to produce a desired product
Microbes used to clean up oil spill but won't hurt the environment because once their food source is gone they starve to death
When was the black plague?
When did Cortez kill all the Indians?
When was the Irish Potato Famine?
When was teh Spanish flu?
What was the significance of the Spanish flu?
LRI that caused the immune system to attack the microbe and the pts lungs
When was the first reported incidence of AIDS?
What is the problem with drug cocktails for treating HIV?
1) Expensive
2) The virus is becoming resistant
3) Most cocktails have nasty side effects in most people
The incidence of HIV is increasing in which group of people?
Black women ages 30-50
Why did it take micro so long to become a science?
1) Microscopes weren't invented
2)People believed disease was from the Gods
Came up with the compound light microscope
Came up with the compound light microscope
Edward Jenner
Came up with the first vaccine
Came up with the first vaccine
Edward Jenner
Semmelweis and Oliver Wendall Holmes
Hand washing -->aseptic technique
Hand washing -->Aseptic technique
Semmelweis and Oliver Wendall Holmes
John Snow
Father of epidemiology
Father of epidemiology
John Snow
Joseph Lord Lister
Antiseptic technique with carbolic acid
Came up with antiseptic technique with carbolic acid
Joseph Lord Lister
Louis Pasteur
Germ theory of disease, pasteurization, vaccine for rabies
Germ theory of disease, pasteurization, vaccine for rabies
Louis Pasteur
How do you pasteurize something?
heat at 55C for 30 min
Father of micro
Louis Pasteur
Robert Koch
Koch's postulates to identify the causative agent of a disease, Bacillus anthracis, mycobacterium
What are the steps in Koch's postulates?
1) Take all sick animals and try to id a common microbe
2)Grow microbe in pure culture
3) Inject pure culture in healthy test animals
4) When animals get sick get the same pure culture
cells protect the person - phagocytic cells like T cells
Came up with the idea that cells protect the person - phogocytic cells like T cells
Chemicals protect the person - antibodies
Came up with the idea that antibodies fight off infection
Came up with the medication to fight Syphilis
Salvarsan ("Agent 606")
Medication to combat syphilis
Golden Age of Microbiology
Period of time from Pasteur and WWI
Resolving power
The smallest detail you can see in a microscope limited and determined by the wave length of light being used to illuminate the specimen
Which allows you to see smaller specimens in a microscope, shorter or longer wave lengths?
Phase contrast microscope
Regular microscope that has two polarizing filters which increases the contrast between the specimen and the background
A phase contrast microscope is easier with what type of specimens?
Dark field microscope
regular light microscope with a condenser that bends the light away from your eye
What specimen is best seen in a dark field microscope?
Treponema (Syphilis)
Ultraviolet light microscope
Has a shorter wavelength so allows for more detail
Fluorescent microscope
Use UV light and fluorescent stain, filed is black and the bacteria glows,
What microbe can be seen with a Fluorescent microscope?
Other than mycobacteria, what is a fluorescent microscope good for?
Ability to label antigens and antibodies with fluorescent dye for serology tests
Electron microscope
Utilizes a beam of electrons, greatest resolving pattern with these microscopes,
What are the problems with electron microscopes?
1) have to take a picture to see
2)have to use heavy metal stains that may change shape
3) specimen must be cut thinly and may cause specimen to fall apart
4) EXPENSIVE to obtain and maintain
Where are electron microscopes used?
research in the clinical area
What is the hanging drop technique used to determine?
How do you do a hanging drop technique?
1) Edges of cover slip in Vaseline
2) drop of specimen in center of cover slip
3) Invert cover slip onto the concave well
4) See either little dots or little dots moving
What is the purpose of staining a specimen?
Gives specimen color and makes it easier to see
What do you do before you can stain a specimen?
Smear preparation
What are the three types of staining?
What are the steps to smear prep?
1) Smear specimen on small area
2) Slide air dry
3) Heat fix the slide
4) Let slide cool off
What is the function of heat fixing a slide?
Glue the cells to the slide
What are the steps of simple staining?
1) Smear prep
2) Methylene blue - 1 min
3) Water rinse
4) Blot
What is so special about differential staining?
Allows me to divide bacteria into 1 of two groups
What are the two types of differential stain?
Gram and Acid-Fast/Ziehl-Neelsen
What are the steps of Gram staining?
1) Smear prep 2) Crystal violet - 1 min 3) Water rinse 4) Gram's iodine - 1 min 5 ) Water rinse 6) Acetone alcohol or 95% EtOH for 20 seconds 7) Water rinse 8) Safranin - 1 min 9) Water rinse 10) Blot
What is the primary stain in Gram's?
Crystal violet
What function does Gram's iodine have with Gram's stain?
Seal the crystal violet
What is the function of Aceone-alcohol or EtOH in Gram's stain?
Decolorizing agent
What is the counter stain in Gram's stain?
What color is Safranin?
After doing a Gram stain which cells are positive and which are negative?
Blue = Gram +
Red = Gram -
What is another name for an acid-fast stain?
What is another name for a Ziehl-Neelsen stain?
Which bacteria are the only ones that are acid fast +?
What are the steps for acid-fast staining?
1) Smear prep 2) Carbol fuchsin and stem 5-7 min 3) Cool 4) Water rinse 5) Acid-alcohol rinse 6) Water rinse 7) Methylene blue 1 min 8) Water rinse 9) Blot dry
What is primary stain in an acid-fast stain?
Carbol fuchsin
What color is carbol fuchsin?
What is the counter stain in acid-fast stain?
Methylene blue
What color is an acid-fast + reaction?
What color is an acid-fast - reaction?
What temp is Agar liquid?
> 40C
How do you know there is growth in broth?
Will produce a cloudiness/turbidity
Cloudiness of a broth as a result of growth
When you have a culture that grows just at the top
When you have a culture that grows just at the bottom.
What is a streak for isolation?
Method used to prepare pure cultures in which bacteria are lightly spread over the surface of agar plates, resulting in isolated colonies
True or False:
Isolated colonies are a pure culture.
What characteristics are important to take note of for isolated colonies?
size, margin, elevation, pigment
What is a pour plate?
Specimens are added to liquid agar that is allowed to set up in order to obtain isolated colonies
What is a spread plate?
A drop of specimen is placed on a plate and a spreading tool is used to spread the specimen throughout the plate to obtain isolated colonies
What is special about Enterobacteriaceae?
All can live in your intestines
How do you decipher the bad Enerobacteriaceae from the good?
Whether they ferment lactose
If an Enterobacteriaceae ferments lactose, does that make them good or bad?
VRE is caused by what microbe?
Enterococcus faecalis
What is bacterialmorphology?
Shape of bacteria
What shape is bacillus?
Rod shaped
What is a rod shaped bacteria called?
What shape is coccus?
What is a spherical shaped bacteria called?
What is a corkscrew shaped bacteria called?
What shape is a spiral shaped bacteria?
Cocci that occur in pairs
Cocci that appear in chains
Cocci that occur in clusters
Cocci that are in packets of four or eight
Sprial form that looks like a printed C
Sprial form that is shaped like a cork screw, rigid, no flexibility, always has a flagella
Spiral corkscrew shape, flexible, no flagella, do have axial filament
What determines shape and arrangement?
Organism that exhibits a variety of shapes
Can you educe pleomorphism?
Yes, by changing the environment
What organism did we talk about that is pleomorphic?
E. coli
Long thin hair like appendage that aids in movement of bacteria
One flagella
Tuft flagella that is like a horse's tail
Tuft flagella at both ends of the cell
Cell completely covered by flagella
Which type of bacteria do NOT have flagella?
Axial filament
Thread like appendage, it's wrapped around the outside of the cell and attaches at both ends
Which type of bacteria has axial filament?
Shorter straighter and smaller than a flagella with no function in motility
Which type of bacteria typically have pili?
Gram -
Bacterial conjugation
Allows bacteria with a pili to exchange info
Sex pili
allows bacteria to go through bacterial conjugation
Common pili
Allows bacterial cells to attach to a host cell
When the microbe gets into you and it overcomes your defense mechanisms
Neisseria meningiditgis
Common pili, causes meningitis
Term for substance that completely surrounds a bacterial cell, slimy and watery
Firm substance that surrounds a bacterial cell
In which bacterial cell would you find a capsule?
Some bacilli and cocci
What is the function of a capsule?
Act as a buffer, protect against phagocytosis, enhance colonization
What are some examples of cells that have a capsule?
Strep. Pneumonia
Klebsiella pneumonia
Bacillus anthracis
Extracellular material that holds the cells together
What are some examples of biofilm in the environment?
Slimy stuff in the water bowl and humidifier
A biofilm infection of a person is serious why?
Very difficult to kill them
What is an example of a biofilm bacteria?
All prokaryotic organisms except ________ have a cell wall.
What is the principal component of a cell wall?
Peptidoglycan (protein and carb molecule)
Gram stain + cell walls are different from gram - how?
Gram + several layers of peptidoglycan
Gram - have only a single layer so they aren't that strong
Gram - cell walls take care of their lack of strength by what?
lipopolysaccharide phospholipid lipoprotein complex
Why are gram - bacteria so difficult to treat with antibiotics?
Because the complex has so many lipids
The lipopolysaccharide complex is referred to as an ____________.
What are the only acid-fast positive organisms?
Mycobacterium and Nocardia
What is so special about Mycobacterium and Nocardia cell walls?
60% mycolic acid
irregular folds of plasma membrane, increases the surface area of the cell membrane
Mesosomes serve as sites for ____________.
Should look it up
Small globule of a specific substance int eh cytoplasm (made up of different items ex: starch, iron, carbs)
Extra genetic info and sometimes referred to as extrachromosmal DNA
Transfer factor
Factor in the plasmid that codes for the sex pili
R factor
Factor that allows for an enzyme that degrades certain antibiotics
Genetic engineering
Using a bacteria's plasmid to create something useful
What type of bacteria are capable of creating an endospore?
Some of the gram + bacilli
Bacillus and Clostridium
Highly durable dehydrated structure that protects the cell from adverse environmental conditions
What is needed to stain an endospore?
Steam heat
Obligate intracellular parasite
How is Rickettsia transmitted?
By vector typically flea or lice
any deviation from a state of health
A disease caused by either a pathogen or overgrowth of normal flora
Jonas Salk
Injectable vaccine for polio
Oral vaccine for polio
What was so special about the polio vaccine?
First time a viral vaccine was known what goes in it
Which polio vaccine needs a booster?
What covers the nucleic acid in a virus?
What makes up the capsid?
Flexible membrane like structure covering the capsid in some viruses
Projections from the envelope
Complete virus with at least nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid made up of capsomeres
Helical virus
Rod shaped, looks like barber shop stripe
Polyhedral virus
Capside is made up of 20 triangular faces arranged to make 12 corners
Envelope virus
Virus has an envelope
Complex virus
Virus that doesn't fit into the other categories
What is the broadest grouping of viruses?
Largest of the DNA viruses
Pox viruses
ssDNA, no envelope
(diarrhea in puppies and infants)
dsRNA, no envelope
What does reo stand for in Reovirus?
Respiratory enteric orphan
Smallest of the RNA viruses, no envelope
Subgroup of Picornavirus
Causes the common cold
Subgroup of Picorna virus
Acquire this by ingestion
RNA, enveloped
Enveloped RNA virus
Enveloped RNA
Enveloped RNA
Hantaviruses are significant
Hantavirus is a category ____ bioterrism agent.
Enveloped DNA
Capable of passing from host to host without killing cell
Herpes simplex I
Cold sores
Herpes simplex II
Genital herpes
Varicella - Zoster
Chicken pox and Shingles
Herpes 6
Herpes 8
Kaposi's sarcoma
Naked DNA
What family of viruses cause major problems for military recruits?
What virus did they genetic engineer to carry DNA to a certain cell?
Naked DNA
tumor producing
Hepatitis B
Enveloped DNA
Enveloped RNA
Have Ribosomes
Arenavirus is a class ____ bioterrism agent?
Enveloped RNA with spikes
Enveloped RNA with spikes
Enveloped RNA
Produce hemorrhagic fevers
Filovirus is a class ______ bioterrism agent.
Enveloped RNA
Naked RNA
Norwalk virus
Enveloped RNA
Makes DNA from RNA (backwards from everything else)
Host range
Species a virus will infect
Productive infection
Virus moves into a host cell and it tells it to make baby viruses and then the host cell undergoes lysis
What is the virus called in a productive infection?
Virulent virus
Latent infection
The virus moves into a host cell, inserts its nucleic acid and takes a nap, later the virus wakes up and moves into a productive infection
Persistent infection
Virus moves into the host cell and the host makes baby viruses, they slowly leak out and the host isn't harmed
During a viral infection what is the host cell referred to as?
Permissive cell
Virus that infect bacterial cells
Why are bacteriophages important?
Use them to identify bacteria strains
Lytic cycle
Always ends in cell death of a host cell
Burst time
Amount of time it takes from attachment to release in Lytic cycle
Lysogenic cycle
Viruses inject their genome to the host cell genome and when the host cell replicates the virus genome gets replicated
The cycle where you make a prophage and it excretes an endotoxin
Bacterial derivative that is incredibly tolerant of chemicals
The viral nucleic acid that has been inserted into the nucleic acid of the bacteria
Lysogenic phage
The viral nucleic acid that can become a prohpage
What is the perk of using bacteriophages instead of antibiotics?
80% success rate with no side effects, and humans can't be the host
What are the steps of viral replication in animal cells?
Attachment, penetration, uncoating, biosynthesis, maturation
Where does viral DNA biosynthesis occur in animal cells?
Entirely in the cytoplasm
Capsid in the cytoplasm and nucleic acid in the nucleus
How does RNA uncoat in replication in animal cells?
RNA ---> mRNA, mRNA builds RNA polymerase, builds complementary strand of RNA, comp strand makes original RNA structure and make new capsid
What is a provirus?
Once the DNA of a retrovirus is inserted into your DNA
What are the two special aspects of a provirus?
1) Can and do direct the production of a new virus
2) In provirus form that virus is 100% protected from any defense mechanism you own
How does a retrovirus uncoat in an animal cell?
RNA is used to make DNA and then the complimentary strand to make a dsDNA, DNA is then inserted into animal DNA
Balance pathogenicity
The virus survives as well as the host
Acute infection
Really sick for 7-10 days
Ex: inflluenza
Persistent infection
The virus remains in the host sometimes up to years
(4 categories)
Late complication following an acute infection
Type of persistent infection: Get through the acute infection stage and then the virus goes to CNS
Ex: measles
Latent infection
Type of persistent infection: Virus is present in host cell not multiplying or doing damage and particles cannot be detected in body fluids, need a titer to see
Chronic infection
Type of persistent infection: may or may not have symptoms, can always detect in body fluids
Ex: Hep C and B
Slow viral infection:
Type of persistent infection: acquire the virus, increases in numbers takes years for damage to be apparent, die 6-24 months after symptoms
How do you detect viral replication?
Visible change in the host cell, antigen-antibody complexes,
The change in shape of a neuron due to rabies
Plaque formation
Streak for confluent growth (lawn of growth) and there are areas where there is no bacteria
Broad spectrum antiviral protein that is species specific
What is special about interferon?
If interferon is in the host cell before the host cell makes baby viruses then the host won't make babies
When can interferon be made?
During a viral infection
Repeated division
What are the oncognic viruses?
Pox, Adenoviruses, Papillomaviruses, Epstein Barr virus, Herpes simplex, Retroviruses
Formation of birth defects
What are the teratogenic viruses?
Rubella, CMV, Herpes simplex II
Smallest know infectious agent, only in plants, no protein coat
Small protein with no nucleic acid
Satellite and Delta Virus
Very small viral like particles, occur only in cells that are affected with a virus
What is an example of a Delta virus?
Hep D, only occurs with Hep B