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38 Cards in this Set

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The following is a list of some airways.

1. secondary bronchus
2. bronchioles
3. alveolar ducts
4. primary bronchus
5. respiratory bronchiole
6. alveoli
7. terminal bronchiole

The order in which air passes through is
4, 1, 2, 7, 5, 3, 6.
_____ has a greater partial pressure in the pulmonary capillaries than in the alveoli, so it diffuses into the _____.
CO₂; alveoli
Which gas law explains why there is as much CO2 exchanged between the alveoli and blood as there is O2 exchanged, despite the fact that the partial pressure difference is so much smaller for CO2?
Henry's Law
How would the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 change in an exercising muscle?
The partial pressure of O2 would decrease, and the partial pressure of CO2 would increase.
Which way would O2 and CO2 diffuse during internal respiration?
O2 would diffuse into the cells, and CO2 would diffuse into the systemic capillaries.
Internal and external respiration depends on several factors. Which of the following is NOT an important factor in gas exchange?
a. rate of blood flow through the tissue
b. partial pressure of the gases
c. available surface area
d. the molecular weight of the gas
d. the molecular weight of the gas
Boyle's Law of Gases states that
if the volume goes up, the pressure goes down
All of these muscle participate in inspiration except:
a. scalenes
b. external intercostals
c. internal intercostals
d. diaphragm
c. internal intercostals
Which of these does not contribute to vital capacity?
a. inspiratory reserve volume
b. expiratory reserve volume
c. residual volume
d. tidal volume
c. residual volume
Boyle's law states that gas volume is
inversely proportional to pressure
When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
the volume of the thorax increases.
When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
they are equal
The term _____ describes the result from an injury that permits air to leak into the intrapleural space.
pneumothorax
_____ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle.
Tidal volume
_____ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
Inspiratory reserve volume
If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
vital capacity
_____ equals the respiratory rate × (tidal volume – anatomic dead space).
Alveolar ventilation rate
Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
respiratory minute volume
What is the relationship between the pressures at label "3"?
P outside > P inside
True/False: The volume of air that can be forcefully expelled from the lungs following a normal exhalation is termed expiratory reserve volume.
true
Which of these changes will decrease the effectiveness of gas exchange across the respiratory membrane?
a. increased thickness of the respiratory membrane
b. increased number of alveoli
c. increased difference in partial pressures
d. All of these changes will decrease the effectiveness of gas exchange across the respiratory membranes.
a. increased thickness of the respiratory membrane
Henry's law states that
the volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the solubility of the gas and the gas pressure.
Dalton's law states that
in a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.
If the hemoglobin molecules in a blood sample each had a single oxygen molecule bound to it on average, the saturation is ____
25%
Most oxygen is transported in the blood stream while it is _____.
bound to hemoglobin
Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
carbonic acid/bicarbonate ions
The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
carbon dioxide
Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
a. decreased amounts of DPG
b. increased tissue Po₂
c. decreased temperature
d. decreased pH
e. none of the above
d. decreased pH
Which statement about the chloride shift is false?
a. causes RBCs to swell
b. depends on the chloride-bicarbonate counter transporter
c. involves a movement of bicarbonate ions into the plasma
d. involves a movement of chloride ion into RBCs
e. is driven by a rise in Pco₂
a. causes RBCs to swell
Carbonic anhydrase
a. can decrease the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma
b. is an enzyme
c. can increase the amount of bicarbonates ion in plasma
d. is in RBCs
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
Which of the following would be greater?
a. the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.6
b. the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.2
c. neither is greater
a. the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.6
Which of the following would be greater?
a. the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the temperature is 38 degrees centigrade
b. the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the temperature is 43 degrees centigrade
c. neither is greater
a. the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the temperature is 38 degrees centigrade
Which of the following would be greater?
a. hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen when the BPG level is high
b. hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen when the BPG level is low
c. neither is greater
b. hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen when the BPG level is low
Which of the following is greatest?
a. the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in expired air
b. the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in inspired air
c. the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood
d. the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood
e. the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in alveolar air
d. the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood
The respiratory centers are located in
both the medulla oblongata and the pons
The Hering-Breuer reflex
protects the lungs from damage due to overinflation.
Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to
changes in PCO₂, PO₂, and pH