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15 Cards in this Set

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hooke
credited with discovery of cells, cork
leeuwenhoek
sees "animalcules", first to see living cells and describe bacteria
cell theory
schleiden, schwann, virchow, dutrochet
hans driesch
1891, sea urchin development, embryonic cells sep after first division and each undrestands no longer attached to neighbor and reprograms self to give rise to complete embryo (SELF-REGULATION)
eduard and hans buchner
1890s, showed presence of living yeast cells was not needed for fermentation and called the catalysts enzymes
sumner
1920's, crystallized enzymatic activity from beans, substance was shown to be a protein--> now know most enzymes are proteins
overton
1890's- proof of non-polar nature of membrane (used plant rot cells, showed they rapidly take up non-polar, lipid-soluble compounds --> proposed outer boundary of the cell was non-polar)
gorter and grendel
1926- proof of bilayer (known # of blood cells, measure surface area in microscope and then extract lipids and float on water and get 2x the area)

--they proposed nonpolar chains interact and polar head groups face h20
1950's lipid bilayer proof
transmission electron microscope confirms lipid bilayer, showed trilaminar structure with dark outer layers and clear center
davson and danielli
became clear that polar material was moving across membrane --> pore theory. proposed not simply lipids but proteins

then freeze fracture electron microscopy we see proteins embedded in the membrane
singer and nicolson
1970s, fluid mosaic model, protein "ships" in a lipid "sea", very dyamic structure
frye and edidin
1970, used cell fusion mediated by a virus to show that proteins move laterally thru the membrane
RBC plasma membrane: band 3
carries CO2 from blood to lungs, passive exhcnage of hco3 and cl
RBC plasma membrane: glycophorin A
negative charge on sugars, RBC repel eachother, don't clump
spectrin, ankryrin, actin
maintain strength and shape