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42 Cards in this Set

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Oparin's hypothesis
4 billions years ago, lightning or UV radiation initiated synthesis of organic molecules in atmosphere; molecules collected in ocean
thermal vent theory
thermal vents in oceans may have been sites for organic molecule synthesis
meteorite theory
first organic molecules formed in outer space and came to earth on meteorites (which may have 30% organic molecules)
RNA world hypothesis
early life developed using RNA molecules, not proteins, to synthesize biological molecules

RNA-like molecules produced DNA and proteins; clay surfaces promoted development of complex molecules
volcano theory
carbonyl sulfide in volcanic gas can make peptides; could have formed first proteins
bacteria evolved when?
Archaean eon (4,000 to 2,500 million years ago)
humans and chimps diverged from common ancestor when?
6 to 9 million years ago
95% of human body weight consists of which 4 elements?
C, H, O, N
rate of reaction depends on what?
temperature, concentration of reactants, pH
electrolyte
dissociates into ions in water; conducts electricity
4 Types of Organic Molecules
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates (3 types)
monosaccharides
disaccharides
polysaccharides
Lipids (3 types)
triglycerides
phospholipids
steroids
monosaccharides (examples)
glucose
fructose
galactose
disaccharides (examples)
sucrose (consists of a glucose & fructose)
lactose (consists of a glucose & galactose)
polysaccharides (examples)
glycogen- chain of glucose molecules
ordinary plant starch
triglycerides
-burned to produce energy
-one glycerol & three fatty acids
Phospholipids
one glycerol, two fatty acids, one phosphate group
steroids
sex hormones and cholesterol
all have multiple-ring structure
enzymes are what type of molecule?
PROTEIN!
structure of amino acid
-NH2 group (amino group)
-COOH group (carboxyl group)
-a side chain
what helps maintain shape of proteins?
hydrogen bonds
denaturation
breakage of hydrogen bonds in proteins (caused by heat or improper pH)
nucleic acids
DNA and RNA, made up of chains of nucleotides
nucleotide
nitrogenous base, 5-carbon sugar (pentose), one or more phosphate groups
ATP (type of molecule)
that's right, it's a nucleotide
basis for genetic disease
mistake in sequence of a protein
Magnesium sulfate
MgSO4
phosphoric acid
H3PO4
monosodium phosphate
NaH2PO4
disodium phosphate
Na2HPO4
trisodium phosphate
Na3PO4
ammonia
NH3
ammonium chloride
NH4Cl
carbonic acid
H2CO3
sulphuric acid
H2SO4
sodium bicarbonate
NaHCO3
calcium carbonate
CaCO3
sucrose
C12H22O11
urea
CO(NH2)2
4 types of chemical reactions
synthesis
dissociation/decomposition
exchange
reversible
inorganic substances in cells
H2O
CO2
NaCl, KCl, MgCl, CaCl
sodium phosphate
sodium carbonate
sodium bicarbonate
magnesium sulfate