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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 most important needs of humans
water, oxygen, food, warmth (both external & self-generated)
homeostasis
maintenance of the composition and properties of extracellular fluid, within narrow limits
6 factors under homeostatic control
temperature
oxygen level
pH
salinity
glucose level
metabolic waste product level
5 levels of organization in the body
molecules/macromolecules
cells
tissues
organs
organ systems
homeotic/hox gene
special family of genes that determine what an adult will look like

-important role in development of an individual (esp. skeletal system) & evolution
major body cavities
thoracic
abdonimopelvic
cranial
vertebral

also:
dorsal & ventral
Organs in thoracic cavity
lungs, trachea, heart, esophagus, thymus
Organs in abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominal: stomach, liver, spleen, gall bladder, intestines

Pelvic: large intestine, reproductive organs, urinary bladder
Organs in dorsal cavity
Cranial- brain
Ventral- spinal cord
Membranes associated with thoracic cavity
pleural- lines thoracic cavity & covers lungs

pericardial- surrounds heart
Membrane associated with abdonimopelvic cavity
peritoneal- lines abdominopelvic cavity and covers organs
name major organ systems
integumentary
skeletal
muscular
nervous
endocrine
digestive
respiratory
circulatory
lymphatic
urinary
reproductive
Organ sys. that serves as body covering
Integumentary
Organ systems that serve to support, protect, and allow movement
Skeletal & muscular
Organ systems related to integration and coordination
Nervous
Endocrine
Organ systems related to process and transport
digestive
respiratory
circulatory
lymphatic
urinary
Organ sys. that allows for reproduction
reproductive (duh...)
ipsilateral v. contralateral
ipsilateral- same side
contralateral- opposide side
buccal
referring to cheek
cephalic
referring to head
cervical
referring to neck
costal
referring to ribs
pedal v. plantar
pedal- foot
plantar- sole of foot
9 abdominal regions (list superior to inferior)
r/l hypochondriac
r/l lumbar
r/l iliac

center:
epigastric
umbilical
hypogastric
endoscopy
surgery with micro-instruments and lasers; less invasive than traditional surgery
X-ray
determines nature & extent of bone fractures, detects tumors
CAT
also uses x-rays; detects blood clots & tumors
PET
detects isotopes & can determine metabolic activity in organs like the brain
MRI
differentiates between normal and damaged myelin nerve sheaths; can detect atherosclerosis and brain tumors; can assess damage to heart after heart attack
fMRI
same as MRI but can measure oxygen levels in brain
Ultrasonography
doppler ultrasound measures velocity of blood flow through heart and blood vessels
Homeostasis uses what type of feedback?
Negative feedback
Small Head Cavities
oral (teeth & tongue)
orbital (eyes)
nasal
middle ear
Location of Diaphragm
between thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities
Cavities within Thoracic cavity
Pleural cavity (lungs)
Pericardial cavity (heart)
Mediastinum (region consisting of pericardial cavity and directly above it)
Parietal membrane
lines cavities
Visceral membrane
covers organs
Most basic level of organization
chemical
Biopsy
cut & look surgery