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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
all-or-none response applies to what?
single muscle fiber
process of activating more and more motor units is called?
motor recruitment
staircase effect AKA treppe
contractions become stronger as muscle is repeatedly stimulated b/c of calcium ion buildup in sarcoplasm
a sustained contraction
tetanus
lockjaw is caused by?
pathological tetanus
isotonic contraction
muscle shortens, tension is constant
isometric contraction
muscle does NOT shorten, tension increases
two types of smooth muscle
-multi-unit
-visceral (single-unit)
visceral smooth muscle cells are arranged how?
in wraparound sheets
what is calmodulin?
used in smooth muscle instead of troponin & tropomyosin for excitation-contraction coupling
what causes smooth muscle to contract?
nervous input from the ANS
hormones
substances produced w/in tissue
stretching
intercalated discs contain what kind of junctions?
gap junctions
pacemaker cells
specialized cardiac cells that display rhythmic excitatory activity
first class levers
fulcrum between out-force & in-force
give 3 examples of first class levers in the human body
lifting head; straightening arm @ elbow; walking (foot & ankle)
second class levers
out-force in the middle
third class levers
in-force in the middle
example of third class lever in human body?
flexing forearm @ elbow
-third class levers are the most common type in the human body
advantage of lever system?
large movement of limb w/ small degree of muscle shortening
disadvantage of lever system?
mechanical disadvantage- must exert much more force
flexor/extensor
decrease/increase angle @ a joint
abductor/adductor
move bone away/closer to the midline
levator/depressor
produce an upward/downward movement
supinator/pronator
turn palm up/down
sphincter
decrease size of an opening
tensor
make a body part more rigid
rotator
move a bone around its longitudinal axis
agonist/antagonist
prime mover/ relaxor
"helper" muscles
synergists
satellite cells
stem cells that divide and form myoblasts that can make new muscle cells to replace damaged ones
muscular hyperplasia
forming new muscle fibers from satellite cells
muscular hypertrophy
increase in size of muscle fibers (happens when you exercise)
muscular atrophy
wasting away of muscles
myasthenia gravis
type of muscular atrophy
antibodies against acetylcholine receptors form
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
type of muscular atrophy caused by a mutation in the gene for dystrophin
how is myasthenia gravis treated?
with anticholinesterase drugs that reduce enzymatic breakdown of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction
force exerted by a muscle is proportional to what?
its cross-sectional area
t/f, increasing the volume of a muscle increases the amount of work it can do?
true