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78 Cards in this Set

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Technical definition of an animal
multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryote that digest food items
How are animals different than plants and fungi?
We ingest food items internally
Characterize choanoflagellates
10 um, aquatic, single flagellm, live as free-living or attatched to substrate
Why are they considered closely related to animals?
Cell is strikingly similar to collar cells of sponges, they often live in colonies with some cellular specialization and division of labor, and DNA evidence
What are 4 primary synapomorphies for Metazoa (animals)?
1. specialized extracellular matrix
2.Unique cell juntions
3.DNA evidence
4.Posession of Hox genes
What are the functions of extracellular matrix?
hold cells together in tissue, add structural support, act as a filter, cell communication
Tight junction?
imprmeable seal
desmosome?
maintain cell separation and cohesiveness.
Gap junctions?
Allows passage of ions
Phylum?
Taxonomic grouping of body plan
How many metazoan body plans exists?
35
What is a body plan?
Description of the entire body organization system (symmetry, tissue complexity, segmentation, appendages etc
Exceptions to the normally marine metozoan habitat?
Vertebrates and arthropods
How many vertebrates vs. invertebrates has been described?
50 000 vs. 1.3 million
Age of earth?
4.6 billion yo
First fossil record?
3.5 billion yo
first metozoan fossil record?
575 million ya
Cambrian Explosion?
Great diversity in the fossil record 525 mya, half of all metozoan phyla fossils showed up.
Basic cellular requirements?
In: sugars, amino acids, oxygen
out: Carbon dioxide, nitrogenous wast
Maintain: Water and Na balance
Internalization?
Cells exist in an environment that is different than the external.
How do triptoblasts get materials to and from all cells?
all cells linked to a transport system
4 major organ systems in triptoblasts + funcitons
Digestive(food,water,salt), Circulatory(material transport), Excretory(Nwaste, salt/water balance), respiratory (o2 in,co2 out)
How do excretory systems control the solute concentrations (osmolarity) of extracellular fluids?
1. filter body fluids
2. Active secretion and resorption of specific ions.
Osmoconformer vs. osmoregulator? ex?
Osmoconformer lives in ocean with intra extra cellular fluids same. Freshwater animals must work to expell water and while conserving salt.
2 Primary divergent features of Porifera?
1.cellular grade of organization
2.Totipotent cells
Totipotent?
Cells that can differentiate
Porifera characteristics?
-all aquatic
-lack body symmetry
-sessile
filter feeders
How are sponge bodies supported?
Skeleton of spicules and collagen
4 sponge cell types+funciton?
1. pinarocytes-surface
2. amebocytes-food transport, structural support, reproduction
3. porocyte-surround ostial opening
4.choanocytes-produce current and traps food particles
Porifera defense?
spicules, toxic compounds, little nutrition
kleptocnidae?
mollusc that consume cnidocytes and use them in their own defence
Polyp vs. medusa?
Polyp: oral side up, sessile,asexual, intertidal or benthic, large colonies from asexual budding.
Medusa: oral side down, free-floating, pelagic, sexual reproduction.
4 major groups of cnidarians?
Hydrozoans
Scyphozoans
Cubozoans
Anthozoans
polymorphic?
organism having more than one adult form.
coral reefs, where?
"rain forest of the sea" marine biodiversity hotspot.' colonial anthozoans with calcium carbonate base. found in shallow tropical seas.
reefs in trouble, wheiyy?
pollution, mining, blastfishing, increasing solar irradiance, warmer waters.
Diploblastic condition?
2 cell layers= gastrodermis (from endoderm) and epidermis (from ectoderm)
3 main synapomorphies for triploblsts?
1. bilateral
2. 3 embryonic germ layers
3. Body cavities
bilateral symmetry?
2 body axes
Triploblastic condition?
3 cell layers:
ecto=outer body covering+cns
endo=gut lining+ass. organs
meso=true muscle tissue
3 triploblast body cavities?
acoelomate (region between endo, and ectoderm is mesoderm (lacking of cavitiy)
pseudocoelomate (have body cavity btwn endo/meso)
coelomate (true cavity lined by meso)
function of coelom?
space and holds for internal organs, fluid cushion organs, fluid is hydrostatic skeleton
ex of protostome animals?
apods,molluscs,worms, most invertebrates
deuterstome animals?
starfish, vertebrates)
3 differences between protostomes and deuterostomes?
proto deutero
N.S.:ventral dorsal
blasto
pore: mouth anus
hox
cluster: no
expansion expansion
of
posterior
genes
functional embryo?
body axes established, symmetry, formation of the embryoninc germ layers.
most diverse lopotrochozoans?
molluscs, annelida, platyhelminthes
describe platyhelminthes?
-acoelomate
-posses head
-flat
-anterior conc. NS
-large SA
protonephridia?
specialized excretory cell in platyhelmithes that conserve amino acids, sugars, ions, while excreting excess water=Nwaste
4 platyhelminthes + lifestyles?
see page 646
Global impact of Schistosomiasis?
In africa, se asia, nw s. america, caribbean. 200 mill infected, 20 mill chronically ill.
Function of circulatory systems in animals?
To transport gases, nutrients, waste, and hormones to and from interstitial fluids.
4 major transport systems in triptoblasts?
digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory
respiratory pigments?
O2 transport molecules
4 different types of respiratory systems?
see notes.
4 mollusc features?
1. internal organs between ventral muscular foot.
2.Dorsal mantle (dorsal cell layer that secretes a shell)
3. Mouth w/ radula
4. Mantle cavity w/ gills and anus.
3 major groups of molluscs + examples?
Gastropods (snails)
Bivalvia (oyster)
Cehphalopod (squid)
Primary synapomorphy for ecdysozoans?
protein-based cuticle>>they must be molted to grow (ecdysis)
Major ecdysozan phyla?
Apods,nematodes, small phyla
Apod's relatives + 3 features shared?
velvet worms and waterbears
1. body segmentation
2. appendages
3.cuticle w/ chitin
3 evolutionary successess for apods?
high species diversity
high ecological diversity
Numerically Dominant
4 major groups of apods + habitats?
1. Crustacea (aquatic)
2. Chelicerata (Mostly terrestrial)
3. Myriapoda (all terrestrial)
4. Hexapoda (mostly terrestrial)
2 important features of apod body plan?
semented body, chitinous cuticle
3 functions of skeleton:
1. locomotion
2. support
3. protection
cuticle?
external multilayer proteinacious matrix secreted by epidermal cells
chitin?
structural polysaccharide
Characterstics of apods exoskeleton?
-variable thick/flexible
-tough+hard
-light+strong
-waxy outer layer to prevent water loss
1st animal on land+when?
chelicerates+myriopods 400 mya
3 main chelicerates + habitat?
Merostomata (marine)
Pycnogodia (marine)
Arachnids (essentially all terrestrial)
Chelicerate body plan?
2 tagmata: 1 cephlothorax w 6 pairs of appendages. 1 posterior abdomen
Chelicerae?
1 pair of appendages that are pincherlike
Pedipalps?
2nd pair, great diversity (prey capture, defence, sensory, sperm transfer)
2 spider successes?
silk and venom
talk about spider silk?
secreted protein from abdominal gland as a liquid that undergoes conformational change when pulled from spinnerettes. silk is used for egg protection, prey capture, safety line, nest building, balooing
biodiversity?
variety of life forms at cellular, tissue, organ, organism, population, species, ecosystem levels
Ecosystem services?
regulation of climate
purification of water
retention of water
formation of soils
enriching of soils
nutrient cycling
pollination
pest control
marketable biodiversity?
food, material, fule, ecoturism, biomolecules
5 causes of extinctions?
habitat destruction
invasive species
climate change
over exploitation
pollution