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29 Cards in this Set

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A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical means is a(n) __________ .
Element
A solution at pH 6 contains ____ times more H+ than the same amount of solution at pH 8.
A solution at pH 6 contains 100 times more H+ than the same amount of solution at pH 8.
True or False: Most of the unique properties of water result from the fact that water molecules tend to stick together?
True.
Define "element"
A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical means.
Define "atom".
The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element.
True or False: table salt, water, and carbon are compounds.
False. Only table salt and water are compounds.
A chemical compound that donates H+ ions to solutions is called a(n) _________.
acid
A liquid consisting of a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances is a(n) __________.
solution
What is an ion?
An ion is a charged particle that is akin to an atom.
True or False: The pH scale is set up so that pure water has a pH of 1.
False. The pH scale is set up so that pure water has a pH of 7.
If the atoms in a molecule share electrons equally, the molecule is said to be _______.
nonpolar
True or False: Atoms in a water molecule are held together by the sharing of electrons.
True
True or False: "Temperature" is a measure of the average kinetic energy or speed of molecules in a substance.
True.
True or False: table salt, water, and chlorophyll are compounds.
True.
When electrons are shared equally during bonding, the bond is said to be ___________.
nonpolar
What is "cohesion"?
Cohesion is the tendency of molecules to stick together.
True or False: "Heat" is a measure of the average kinetic energy or speed of molecules in a substance.
False. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy or speed of molecules.
Explain electronegativity.
The tendency for an atom to pull electrons towards itself. The more electronegative an atom, the more strongly it pulls shared electrons toward itself, increasing polarity.
True or False: A "polar covalent bond" is a chemical bond in which shared electrons are pulled closer to one atom than the other.
True
Your body contains the smallest amount of which of the following:
a) nitrogen
b) phosphorus
c) carbon
d) oxygen
e) hydrogen
Your body contains more oxygen than carbon, more carbon than hydrogen, more hydrogen than nitrogen, and more nitrogen than phosphorus. b) phosphorus is the answer, and makes up 1% of the human body.
True or False: Most of the unique properties of water result from the fact that water molecules are held together by covalent bonds.
False. Most of the unique properties of water result from the fact that water molecules stick together.
True or False: Water is neither polar nor nonpolar because the hydrogen atom is nonpolar, and the oxygen atoms are polar.
False. Water is polar.
True or False: "Heat" is the amount of energy associated with the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter.
True.
What is "surface tension"?
Surface tension is a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.
In a tall tree, water in thin tubes within the trunk is pulled upward by evaporation from the leaves. What keeps the water molecules at the bottom of the tree moving upward?
Hydrogen bonds hold neighboring water molecules together in the liquid water. This "cohesion" helps the molecules move against the downward pull of gravity.
True or False: "Temperature" is the amount of energy associated with the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter.
False. Heat is the amount of energy associated with the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter.
The attractive or repulsive forces between molecules other than those due to covalent bonds or to the electrostatic interaction of ions with one another or with neutral molecules are known as _____________.
Van Der Waals Forces
Attractions between molecules that are close together, that result from asymmetric electron clouds are known as ____________.
Van Der Waals Forces
How do buffers work?
They accept H+ ions from an additive when in excess, and donate H+ ions to an additive when depleted.