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29 Cards in this Set

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Dude king phillip came over for good sex
Domain, Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
(before nucleus)
1. No membrane bound nucleous
2. No membrane bound organelles
3. Circular chromosomes
Oldest and structurally the simplest forms of life.
Eukaryote(true nucleus)
1)membrane bounded both nucleus and organelles
2)Varying shapes of choromosome(human-rod shape)
Clade (candidate kingdom)
A group of closely related organisms that have a common ancestor.
"Nucleoid region" floating in cytoplasm
-carry accessary genes
2)antibiotic resistant
-replicated and duplicated chromosome
three most common shapes of Bacteria
Coccus (round), Bacillus (rod-shaped),
spirillum (spiral)
Ex.** Spirillium volutans
Reproduction in Prokaryotes
No mitosis or meiosis, no spindle apparatus, no mitoic phases/stages.
*Binary fission(Asexual reproduction)
**Conjugation (version of sexual reproduction)
Cell wall in ProK
-protect and maintain shape.
-Bacteria's cell wall made of *peptidoglycan.
-eukaryotic cell walls are usually made of *Cellulose or *Chitin. In contrast, most bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan, a network of modified–sugar polymers cross–linked by short polypeptides.
Gram stain technique
By H.C.Gram
1. Stain bacteria with crystal violet and iodine
2. rinse off with alcohol
3. And then stain with Safranin(red dye)

The structure of the cell wall determines the staining response
After stain **Peptidoglycan layer traps violet. Gram–positive bacteria have simpler walls with a relatively large amount of peptidoglycan. (2 layers outer peptidoglycan, inner plasmamembrane with protein)
After stain appears red or pink trapped by **lipopolysaccharide (hair like). Gram–negative bacteria have less peptidoglycan and are structurally more complex, with an outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (carbohydrates bonded to lipids)
Gram staining medical benefits
Gram staining is a particularly valuable identification tool in medicine. Among pathogenic, or disease–causing, bacteria, gram–negative species are generally more threatening than gram–positive species. The lipopolysaccharides on the walls of gram–negative bacteria are often toxic, and the outer membrane helps protect these bacteria against the body′s defenses. Furthermore, gram–negative bacteria are commonly more resistant than gram–positive species to antibiotics because the outer membrane impedes entry of the drugs.
disrupt bonding between modified sugars and peptide residues. So the gram-positive are more substible to antibiotics because of simpler cell walls (outer being directly affected by antibiotics) wereas the the gram-negative has outer defences to antibiotics (outer no pun intended, outer membranes protect it) also does not effect Euk cells because we dont have peptidoglycan
Good use of bacteria
-Vitamin synthesis in the intestines vit K
-cheese, yogurt
-major decomposers in ecosystem,"natural recyclers"
-help with immune system
Pathogenic Bacteria
Cholera -Bac.disease spread by water
Tetanus - Step on a nail or dog bite
Leprost - skin falls off
TB - Bacillus contact via air
Plant Pathology-Plant disease
12% of crops has Bac. disease
ProK movement
more like rotary propeler
(Euk. Move by Undulating-how sperm move)
Photosythetic bacteria, autotrophic,**no chloroplast
-have Chlorophyll and thyllakoids for photosynthesis
Type of cyanobacteria, Domain bacteria
have heterocysts for **nitrogen fixation
- breaks down N2 to nitrates, nitriles and amines
Extreme Halophilic
(The lover of high salt)
Live in the great salt lake in Utah, dead sea
Extreme Methanogens
Methane Produce
ex swamp gas-Bac. live in deep mud produce CH3
Exttreme Thermophiles
Thermal Spas, Geysers, Hydro thermalvents- Pyrococcus furiosus
Erythrooxylum coca
red wood
Structure of pro/euk is different
Obligate Aerobe
Needs O2 for growth and metabolism
Obligate Anaerobe
does not need O2 for growth and metabolism - poisoned by O2
Facultative Anaerobic
Can go back and forth between needing and not needing O2
Ex. Yeast
Cyanobacteria or Blue green algae
Ex. Gloeocapsa, Nostoc, Oscillatoria
moving by gliding ot oscillating
Nitrogen fixation useful for these plant
LAlfafa, peas, beans, modules, Legume
-Genus Rhizobium*