Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/51

Click to flip

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
inferior
below
superior
above
anterior
towards the front
posterior
towards the back
ventral
towards the front
dorsal
towards the back
proximal
closes to the ponit of attachment (shoulder, hip)
distal
farthest from the point of attachment
lateral
away from the middle
medial
towards the middle
superficial
towards/on the surface
2 points of attachment
pectoral girdle (shoulder)
pelvic girdle (hip)
positive feedback
does not maintain homeostatic environment; never returns to the set point, but deviation keeps increasing
deep
below the surface
negative feedback
deviation from the set point is brought back to normal range
positive feedback examples
(good and bad)
bad: excessive blood loss
good: child labor/delivery
negative feedback examples
body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate
3 components of negative feedback
receptor, control center, effector
receptor
monitors value of the variable
control center
establishes the set point
effector
changes the value of the variable
normal range
values close to a set point
set point
ideal value for a variable
homeostasis
existence and maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment (conditions must stay within a narrow set of limits)
variables for a set point
blood pressure, body temp, heart rate, blood pH
hyperplasia
increase in cell number
hypertrophy
increase in cell size
atrophy
decrease in cell size
anatomical position
point of reference
body upright, feet apart, arms not touching sides, palms facing out
6 characteristics of life
organization, metabolism, responsiveness, growth, differentiation, reproduction
organization
composed of cells

different parts of organism are related to one another
metabolism
ability to use energy to function
responsiveness
ability to sense change
growth
increase in cell number, cell size, or teh substance surrounding the cell (extracellular matrix)
differentiation
changes in cell structure or function from generalized to specialized

ex: stem cell to blood cell
reproduction
formation of new cells/organisms

without this, growth and tissue repair are impossible
7 levels of structural functional organization
(largest to smallest)
organism, organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle, chemical
chemical
interactions among molecules into atoms
*subcellular: enzymes, lipids, proteins
organelle
small structure in cell forming 1+ functions
*subcellular: mitochondria, nucleus, rough endo reticulum
cell
basic living untis of all plants and animals
tissue
group of cells with substance between them
4 types of tissue
epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
organs
made of 2 or more tissue types that perform functions.
ex: skin, stomach, eye, heart
organ system
group of organs classified as a unit from common functions; 11 major systems. necessary for function
organism
any living thing considered as a whole with at least one cell
regional anatomy
organization of body by areas
surface anatomy
external features
1. body projections
2. use of x-rays, ultrasound
3. useful in diagnosing disease
physiology
study of nature . the structures are dynamic (changing)
1. explains body's response to stimuli
2. bodys maintenance to conditions wiht continually changing environment
physiology's 2 secitons
organisms involved

levels of organization within organism
anatomy
to dissect
systemic anatomy
sutdy of systems in body